Main Article Content
Biobased energy and fuels are among the exercisable sustainable energy options mankind has in the not-so-distant future as issues pertaining to global warming and shortfall in fossil fuels loom dark over the planet. The environmental necessity to stop this development by switching to alternative strategies nowadays is generally undisputed. Biofuel made from biomass provide unique environmental economic strategic benefit and can be considered as safe and by and large, the cleanest liquid fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Biofuel produced from Agricultural waste biomass like cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) pod husk shows many potentials advantages in comparison with sugar or starch-based stocks since the latter materials are also food for human and animals. However, the complex nature of this biomass necessitates the use of genetic techniques to produce engineered organisms that are able to transform this polymer into the desired product. With Bioinformatics tools using NCBI BLAST programme, two genes XL1 and XL2 encoding pentose utilization were isolated from the genomic DNA of Pichia stipitis (CBS 6054) and two primers each were designed to span the full coding region of these genes with attached enzymes restriction sites using DNA strider 1.4f7 and Macplasmap programmes. PCR reactions were carried out on 120hg of the isolated genomic DNA for 30 cycles using the DNA Gotaq polymerase enzyme. The amplified PCR fragments were introduced into plasmid vectors pGAPZA and pVT100-U respectively and the constructs were then used to transform the selected ethanol-producing strain of S. cerevisiae (BY4743) isolated from degrading cocoa pod husk biomass meant to serve as starter for biofuel production from cocoa pod husk hydrolysate.
Maity SK. Opportunities, recent trends and challenges of integrated biorefinery: Part I. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2015;43:1427-1445.
Kuyper M, Aeron AW, Johannes P, Van Dijken, Jack TP. Minimal metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient anaerobic xylose fermentation: A proof of principle; 2004.
van Zyl C, Prior BA, Kilian SG, Brandt EV. Role of D-ribose as a cometabolite in D-xylose metabolism by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1993; 59:1487-1494.
Jeffries TW. Emerging technology for fermenting D-xylose. Trends Biotechnol. 1985;3:208-212.
Attfield PV, Bell PJL. Genetics and classical genetic manipulations of industrial yeasts. In JH. de Winde (ed.), functional genetics of industrial yeasts. Springer, Berlin, Germany. 2003;17-55.
Kaiser Chris, Susan Michaelis, Aaron Mitchell. Methods in yeast genetics. A Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Course Manual; 1994.
Amore R, Kotter P, Kuster C, Ciriacy M, Hollenberg CP. Cloning and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase-encoding gene (XYL1) from the xylose-assimilating yeast Pichia stipitis J. Gene. 1991;109(1):89-97. Angspanneforeningen Report: P23332-1. NUTEK, Stockholm, Sweden; 1994.
Kotter P, Ciriacy M. Xylose fermentation by saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 1993;38:776-783.
Eliasson A, Christensson C, Wahlbom CF, Hahn-Hàgerdal B. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae XYL1, XYL2 and XKS1 in mineral medium chemostat cultures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000;66: 3381–3386.
Zhou H, Cheng JS, Wang BL, Fink GR, Stephanopoulos G. Xylose isomerase overexpression along with engineering of the pentose phosphate pathway and evolutionary engineering enable rapid xylose utilization and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Metab Eng. 2012;14:611–22.
Kim SR, Park YC, Jin YS, Seo JH. Strain engineering of saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced xylose metabolism. Bio-technol Adv. 2013;31:851–61
Demeke MM, Dietz H, Li Y, Foulquié-Moreno MR, Mutturi S, Deprez S, Den Abt T, Bonini BM, Liden G, Dumortier F, Verplaetse A, Boles E, Thevelein JM. Development of a D-xylose fermenting and inhibitor tolerant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with high performance in lignocellulose hydrolysates using metabolic and evolutionary engineering. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2013;6:89.
Hector RE, Dien BS, Cotta M, Mertens J. Growth and fermentation of D-xylose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a novel D-xylose isomerase originating from the bacterium Prevotella ruminicola TC2-24. Biotechnol biofuels. 2013;6:84.
Leonardo de Figueiredo Vilela, Verônica Parente Gomes de Araujo, Raquel de Sousa Paredes, Elba Pinto da Silva Bon, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves Torres, Bianca Cruz Neves, Elis Cristina Araújo Eleutherio. Enhanced xylose fermentation and ethanol production by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. AMB Express. 2015;5:16.
Aristidou Aristos, Penttila Merja. Metabolic engineering applications to renewable resource utilization. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2000;11:187– 198.
Kötter P, Amore R, Hollenberg CP, Ciriacy M. Isolation and characterization of the Pichia stipitis xylitol dehydrogenase gene, XYL3, and construction of a xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformant. Curr. Genet. 1990;18:493-500.
Cai Z, Zhang B, Li Y. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient anaerobic xylose fermentation: Reflections and perspectives. Biotechnol. J. 2012;7: 34–46.
Jeffries TW, Jin YS. Metabolic engineering for improved fermentation of pentoses by yeasts. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;63:495 – 509.
Gietz RD, Woods RA. Genetic trans-formation of yeast. Bio Techniques. 2001; 30: 816 -820,822–826,828.
Nancy WY, Ho Zhengdao Chen, Adam P. Brainard. Genetically engineered Saccharomyces yeast capable of effective cofermentation of glucose and xylose. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1998;5(64):1852–1859.
Smits HP, Hauf J, Müller S, Hobley TJ, Zimmermann FK, Hahn-Hägerdal B, Nielsen J, Olsson L. Simultaneous over expression of enzymes of the lower part of glycolysis can enhance the fermentative capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2000;16:1325-1334.
Snoep JL, Yomano LP, Westerhoff HV, Ingram LO. Protein burden in Zymomonas mobilis: Negative flux and growth control due to overproduction of glycolytic enzymes. Microbiology. 1995; 141:2329-2337. Taherzadeh MJ, Gustafsson L, Niklasson C, Liden G. Physiological effects of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2000;53:701-708.
Gorgens JF, van Zyl WH, Knoetze JH, Hahn-Hagerdal B. The metabolic burden of the PGK1 and ADH2 promoter systems for heterologous xylanase production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in defined medium. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2001;73:238-245.
Almeida João RM, Tobias Modig, Anja Röder, Gunnar Lidén, Marie-F Gorwa-Grauslund. Pichia stipitis xylose reductase helps detoxifying lignocellulosic hydrolysate by reducing 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF). Biotechnology for Biofuel. 2008;1:12.
Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K. Acid based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: A review. Bio Res. 2007;2:472–479.
Petersson A, Almeida JRM, Modig T, Karhumaa K, Hahn-Hägerdal B, Gorwa-Grauslund MF, Liden G. A 5-hydroxymethyl furfural reducing enzyme encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH6 gene conveys HMF tolerance. Yeast. 2006;23:455-464.
Liu ZL, Slininger PJ, Dien BS, Berhow MA, Kurtzman CP, Gorsich SW. Adaptive response of yeasts to furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and new chemical evidence for HMF conversion to 2,5-bis-hydroxymethylfuran. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;31:345-352.
Hahn-Hagerdal B, Wahlbom CF, Gardonyi M, van Zyl WH, Cordero Otero RR, Jonsson B. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for xylose utilization. Adv Biochem Eng Bitechnol. 2001;73:53– 84.