Soil Electrical Conductivity As Influenced by Ionic Dynamics and Salinity Strength under Tripartite Ecological Condition in Parts of Niger Delta, Nigeria

Main Article Content

N. L. Edwin-Wosu
A. E. Nkang

Abstract

Background: Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC) is one of the soil physical properties related to a number of soil indices either in it natural status or anthropogenic influenced condition within individual field or across soil landscapes such as the tripartite ecological condition under consideration.

Aim: The study was aimed at understanding the varying relationship between soil EC and ionic-salinity changes under ecological tripartite condition of pre-pollution, post-pollution and phytoremediation soils.

Study Design: Research methods involved the nested split plot design, carried out the Department of Botany, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Methods: Field sampling / laboratory analysis and SAS PROC. ANOVA (Soft Ware) for data analysis.

Results: Has revealed increasing trend of Nitrate (NO3-), Phosphate (PO4-), Calcium (Ca2+), Potassium (K+), salinity and EC and a decreasing trend of Sulphate (SO4-), Magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), and moisture in post-pollution. Macrophytic treated hydrocarbon soils had decrease in NO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, salinity and EC and increase in SO4-, PO4-, Na+, K+, and moisture  in divergence content. Peltophorum soil was greater in NO3-, SO4-, and K+, Leucaena soil in Ca2+, Mg2+, PO4-, and moisture while Crotolaria was high in Na+, and salinity content.

Conclusion: The trend observed for EC in the phytoremediation phase of the tripartite condition paralleled changes in ionic content and salinity strength. Therefore EC is a function of ionic dynamics, salinity and moisture which appears to be reliable indicator of EC potential of tripartite soil.

Keywords:
Phytoremediation, anion, cation, pollution, soil moisture

Article Details

How to Cite
Edwin-Wosu, N. L., & Nkang, A. E. (2019). Soil Electrical Conductivity As Influenced by Ionic Dynamics and Salinity Strength under Tripartite Ecological Condition in Parts of Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, 21(4), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/jabb/2019/v21i430102
Section
Original Research Article

References

Seifi MR, Alimardani R, Sharifi A. How Can Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurements Control Soil Pollution? Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. 2010; 2(4):235-238.

Sudduth KA, Kitchen NR, Wiebold WJ, Batchelor WD, Bollero GA, Bullock DG, Clay DE, Palm HL, Pierce FJ, Schuler RT, Thelen KD. Relating apparent electrical conductivity to soil properties across the north-central USA. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 2005;46:263– 283.

Sheets KR, Hendrickx JMH. Non invasive soil water content measurement using electromagnetic induction. Water Resources Research. 1995;31(10):2401–2409.

Kibria G, Hossain MS. Investigation of geotechnical parameters affecting electrical resistivity of compacted clays. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 2012;138 (12):1520-1529.

Williams BG, Hoey D. The use of electromagnetic induction to detect the spatial variability of the salt and clay contents of soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 1987;25:21–27.

McBride RA, Gordon AM, Shrive SC. Estimating forest soil quality from terrain measurements of apparent electrical conductivity. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 1990;54:290–293.

McNeill JD. Rapid, accurate mapping of soil salinity by electromagnetic ground conductivity meters. In: Topp GC, Reynolds WD, Green RE. (Eds.), Advances in Measurement of Soil Physical Properties: Bringing Theory into Practice. Spec. Publ. 30. SSSA, Madison, WI. 1992; 209–229.

Rhoades JD, Corwin DL, Lesch SM. Geospatial measurements of soil electrical conductivity to assess soil salinity and diffuse salt loading from irrigation. In: Corwin DL, Loague K, Ellsworth TR. (Eds.), Assessment of non-point source pollution in the Vadose Zone. Geophysical Monograph 108 American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. 1999;197–215.

Kachanoski RG, de Jong E, van Wesenbeeck IJ. Field scale patterns of soil water storage from non-contacting measurements of bulk electrical conductivity. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 1990;70(3):537–541.

Cook PG, Walker GR. Depth profiles of electrical conductivity from linear combinations of electromagnetic induction measurements. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 1992;56(4):1015–1022.

Kitchen NR, Sudduth KA, Drummond ST. Mapping of sand deposition from 1993 midwest floods with electromagnetic induction measurements. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 1996;51(4):336–340.

Rhoades JD. Electrical conductivity methods for measuring and mapping soil salinity. Advances in Agronomy. 1993;49: 201–251.

Slinger D, Midgley T, Madden E. How salinity is measured. NSW department of primary industries. [Online] Dpi.nsw. gov.au; 2005.
Available:http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/resources/soils/salinity/general/measuring
[Accessed 23 May. 2019]

Abdulfattah AA, Saima J, Arif M, Rawand S. Effects of Crude Oil Spillage on the Physico-chemical Properties of Soil, Tarjan, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2016;6 (6):27-32.

Williams BG, Baker GC. An electromagnetic induction technique for reconnaissance surveys of soil salinity hazards. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 1982;20:107–118.

Rhoades JD, Raats PA, Prather RJ. Effects of liquid-phase electrical conductivity, water content, and surface conductivity on bulk soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1976; 40:651–655.

Akindele SO. Basic experimental design in agricultural research, Akure, Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA) Press. 1996;77–84.

Stewarte A, Grimshaw HM, John AP. Chemical analysis of ecological materials. oxford. Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1974.

Song HG, Wang X, Bartha R. Bioremediation potential of terrestrial fuel spills. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1990;56(3):652–656.

SAS Institute Inc. SAS for Windows Release 9.1, Canny, United State America, Statistical Analysis Systems Institute Incorporated; 2002.

British Standard. Method for determination of water soluble chloride content. London, British Standard Institution. 1990;18.

International institute of tropical agriculture selected methods for plant and soil analysis Ibadan, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Manual series No. 1; 1979.

Fox RL, Olsen RA, Roades HF. Evaluating the sulphur status of soils by plant and soil tests. Soil Science Society of America. 1964;28:243-246.

Bray RH, Kuntz LT. Determination of total organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science. 1945;59:39-45.

Loring DH, Rantala RTT. Manual for the geochemical analysis of marine sediments and suspended particulate matter Earth Science Revision. 1992;32:235-283.

Antai SP, Iwatt GD, Agbor RB. Interlocation Comparison Physicochemical Properties of Polluted and Unpolluted Soil, Water and Sediment Ecosystems of the Niger Delta Region. World Rural Observations. 2016;8(2):1-9.

American Petroleum Institute. Manual on disposal of petroleum wastes. Washington DC. American Petroleum Institute; 1980.

Hanlon, Soil pH and Electrical Conductivity: A county extension soil laboratory manual. University of Florida Soil and Water Science Department, CIR1081. 2015;5-7.

Okonokhua BO, Ikhajiagbe B, Anoliefo GO, Emede JO. The effect of spent engine oil on soil properties and growths of maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2007; 11(3):147–152.

Nwite JN, Alu MO. Effect of different levels of spent engine oil on soil properties, grain yield of maize and its heavy metal uptake in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management. 2015;5(4):44–51.

Eigenberg RA, Doran JW, Nienaber JA, Ferguson RB, Woodbury BL. Electrical conductivity monitoring of soil condition and available N with animal manure and a cover crop. Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty. 182. 2002;88:183–193.
Available:http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usdaarsfacpub/182. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment.

Parkin TB, Doran JW, Franco-Vizcaino E. Field and laboratory tests of soil respiration. In: Doran JW, Jones AJ. (Eds.), Method for assessing soil quality. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Special Publication 49, SSSA, Madison, WI; 1996.

Wang X, Feng J, Wang J. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and impact on soil characteristics from oilfield in Momoge wetland. Environmental Science. 2009;30 (8):2394–2401.

Eneje RC, Nwagbara C, Uwumarongie-Ilori EG. Amelioration of chemical properties of crude oil contaminated soil using compost from Calopoigonium mucunoides and poultry manure. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science. 2012;2(6):246–251.

Liu W, Luo Y, Teng Y. Eco-risk assessment and bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil II. Changes in physico-chemical properties and microbial ecology of petroleum contaminated soil. Acta Pedologica Sinica. 2007;44(5):848– 853.

Wang Y, Feng J, Lin Q, Lyu X, Wang X, Wang G. Effects of crude oil contamination on soil physical and chemical properties in Momoge wetland of China. Chinese Geographical Science. 2013;23(6):708– 715.

Agbogidi OM, Eruotor PG, Akparobi SO. Evaluation of crude oil contaminated soil on the mineral nutrient elements of maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Agronomy. 2007; 6(1):188-193

Kayode J, Oyedeji AA, Olowoyo O. Evaluation of the effect of pollution with spent lubricant oil on the physical and chemical properties of soil. Pacific Journal of Science Technology. 2009;10(1):387-391.

Unegbu FO, Akubugwo EI, Iweala EJ, Uhegbu OCImpact of spent engine oil on soil and the growth of Zea mays L. seeds. Scientific Journal of Environmental Science. 2012;1(1):1–8.

Ezeaku PI, Egbemba BO. Yield of maize (Manoma spp.) affected by automobile oil waste and compost manure. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2014;13(11): 1250–1256.

Oyem and Lawrence I. Effects of crude oil spillage on soil physico-chemical properties in ugborodo community. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER). 2013;3 (2013):3336-3337.

Wang XY, Feng J, Zhao JM. Effects of crude oil residuals on soil chemical properties in oil sites, Momoge Wetland, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2010;161(1):271–280.
DOI: 10.1007/s10661-008-0744-1.

Doerge T, Kitchen NR, Lund ED. Soil electrical conductivity mapping. Site specific management guidelines, potash and phosphate institute Publication, SSMG-30; 1999.

Eigenberg RA, Nienaber JA. Identification of nutrient distribution at abandoned livestock manure handling site using electromagnetic induction. ASAE Paper No. 012193, 2001 ASAE Annual International Meeting, 30 July - 1 August 2001. Sacramento, CA. ASAE St. Joseph, MI, USA; 2001.

Herrero J, Ba AA, Aragues R. Soil salinity and its distribution determined by soil sampling and electromagnetic techniques. Soil Use Manage. 2003;19(2):119-126.

Eigenberg RA, Doran JW, Nienaber JA, Woodbury BL. Soil conductivity maps for monitoring temporal changes in an agronomic field. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Animal Agriculture and Food Processing Wastes, Des Moines, IA. 2000;249–265.