Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology 2020-06-01T13:28:41+00:00 Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Biology &amp; Biotechnology (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1081)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JABB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Biology &amp; Biotechnology’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Optimization of Alkaline Protease Production in Submerged Fermentation Using Bacillus cereus Isolated from an Abattoir Wastewater in Ile-Ife, Nigeria 2020-06-01T13:28:41+00:00 Y. J. Ayantunji R. K. Omole F. O. Olojo K. O. Awojobi <p>This study isolated and screened protease-producing bacteria from abattoir wastewater, it determined the effect of physical and nutritional components on the production of the crude protease produced by a selected bacterium in order to obtain a bacterium capable of producing protease with properties for industrial applications. Abattoir wastewater samples were collected from different locations in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and using pour plate method, one milliliter each of the aliquot was inoculated into skimmed milk agar medium (SKMA) to obtain colonies of protease-producing bacteria after proper dilution. All the protease-producing bacterial isolates were further screened for protease activity by submerged fermentation technique. The growth curve and protease activity of the best isolate was determined. The effect of different components of the growth medium on protease production was also determined. Forty-three isolates were obtained, five of the isolates gave appreciable diameter of clear zones of hydrolysis by rapid plate assay technique, out of which <em>Bacillus cereus </em>gave the highest enzyme activity of 75.79 Units/ml/min by submerged fermentation process. The optimal production of the enzyme was obtained after 44 hours of incubation with an inoculum volume of 2.0 ml. The optimal pH and temperature of production were 10.0 and 50°C respectively, while the best carbon and nitrogen source was sucrose and NH<sub>4</sub>Cl respectively. The study concluded that abattoir wastewater served as a good media for the growth of proteolytic bacteria while the strain of <em>Bacillus cereus</em> isolated could be applied in the industries for protease production.</p> 2020-05-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Common Sources of Pre-, Peri- and Post Surgical Site Infections (SSI) in Dogs during Clinical Students’ Surgical Practice 2020-06-01T13:28:39+00:00 A. S. Yakubu N. N. Pilau <p>Surgical site infections (SSI) are important complication of Veterinary surgery. Pre, intra-, and post-surgical procedures are considered to be associated with SSI. An attempt to characterize veterinary SSI in small animal surgery practical was made. 15 dogs were grouped into 5 groups (with each group consisting of 3 dogs), in which skin-defect correction, caudectomy, cystotomy, orchidectomy, or ovariohysterectomy were performed by veterinary students under the guidance of qualified surgeons. Blood samples were obtained pre- and post-surgery. 120 swabs were taken from the following sites; students’ or surgeons’ hands (pre-/post-scrubbing), surgical tables, dog skin, random areas on surgical packs, kennels, and floors of surgical theatre. The microorganisms isolated were as follows; <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella </em>spp<em>, Micrococcus luteus, Enterobacter spp, </em>and <em>Bacillus subtilis, </em>with<em> Klebsiella </em>being the highest. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, increased bands, leukocytopenia, neutropenia, and lymphopenia were observed, with all being signs of infection. This study showed that the sources of SSI were numerous, including the followings; the dogs’ skin microflora, the students’ hands, surgical theater, surgical team, and the kennel. Proper scrubbing techniques should be adopted and maintained. The sterile field created should be kept and proper disinfection of the kennel should be ensured before returning the dogs after surgery.</p> 2020-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Combined Effects of Ocimum gratissimum and Soil-borne Phytopathogenic Fungi on Seedling Growth of Quality Protein Maize 2020-06-01T13:28:37+00:00 M. A. Abiala A. O. Akanmu A. C. Oribhaboise T. Aroge <p>The soil borne phytopathogenic fungi; <em>Fusarium verticillioides</em>, <em>Fusarium solani</em> and <em>Curvularia lunata </em>were investigated separately and as combinations for their pathogenicity and possible control with extracts of <em>Ocimum gratissimum </em>on the seedlings of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) varieties (<em>Zea mays</em> L.); ILE 1 and SW 5. The experiment was factorial based and laid out in a completely randomized design, replicated thrice. Data collected on the percentage germination, growth characters and disease severity were statistically analysed. The pathogenic effect of&nbsp;<em>F. solani,</em> <em>F. verticillioides</em> and <em>C. lunata </em>in their factorial combinations significantly (p&lt;0.05) inhibited seed germination of the QPM maize varieties, and showed high disease severity on ILE1 (31.62%) than SW5 (30.37%). Application of <em>O. gratissimum</em> extract at 0.5 g/ml concentration significantly (p&lt;0.05) enhanced seed germination and growth characters of both maize varieties. More so, <em>O. gratissimum</em> extract selectively (p&lt;0.005) reduced disease severity on SW5 but showed relative effect on ILE1 with respect to number of leaves, plant height and leaf area. The extract of <em>O. gratissimum </em>is therefore a potent phytofungicide in the management of phytopathogenic fungi of QPM.</p> 2020-05-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##