Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Biology &amp; Biotechnology (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1081)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JABB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Biology &amp; Biotechnology’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology 2394-1081 Antifungal and Preservative Effect of Different Species of Aframomum (K. Schum) on Fungi Isolated from Raw Meat and Fish <p><em>Aframomum </em>species (<em>Aframomum danielli, Aframomum melegueta and Aframomum sceptrum</em>) are used traditionally as medicine and food preservatives. Synthetic preservatives have been reported to be carcinogenic; hence, the continuous search for a natural preservative. This study was designed to validate the efficacy of the three named <em>Aframomum</em> species as a preservative against fungi that causes spoilage in raw fish and meat. The methanolic extracts of the samples were screened against <em>Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus ochraceus </em>and <em>Trichoderma </em>sp. using pour plate technique. The fungi were isolated from the raw fish and meat by the method of serial dilution then pour plated into Potatoes Dextro Agar (PDA) incubated at 37ºC for 7 days. The fungi observed were subcultured to get pure culture. The three samples showed significant antifungal activities against <em>Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus ochraceus </em>and <em>Trichoderma </em>sp. at 25%, 50% and 75% concentrations. The significant antifungal activities displayed by extract of these samples could be attributed to their phytochemical and nutritional components of the samples as well as their antioxidant activity. The three samples could be valuable natural preservatives with additional therapeutic potential.</p> O. Y. Aguda S. O. Bankole E. A. Adekunle O. I. Bolanle-Ojo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-02 2019-11-02 1 7 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430119 Molecular Relationship among Mangifera indica L. (Mango) Varieties Using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Marker <p>This study established phylogenetic relationships among mango varieties collected from NIHORT, Ogbomosho, Saki, Oyo, Isehin and Ibadan using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers with a view of determining their polymorphism, gene and allelic diversities. Sweet Mango UI Acc-3 had the highest total genomic DNA of 1379.00µl, while OYOM ACC-5 had the lowest concentration of 0.9 gl from total genomic DNA of 0.25.&nbsp; The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 4 with an average of 2.50 alleles per locus in which the highest allelic frequency of 0.97 was recorded for EF 592217 and EF 59210 primers. However, Primer SSR20 had the highest information of polymorphic at 57.57% and highest gene diversity of 0.64. The result from the dendrogram showed that out of the three major clusters generated, the second delineated the highest number of 12 varieties in which Ogbomosho Mango Acc-2 (OGBM ACC-2) branched out at a distance of 0.15 from other varieties. Sweet Mango UI 3, Ogbomosho Mango Acc-2 (OGBM ACC-2), Julie Mango are potential future breeding accessions while Primer SSR20 could therefore be considered for further molecular breeding of other mango varieties and other tree crops in the Mangifera family.</p> I. I. Ajayi O. J. Olawuyi A. E. Ayodele A. O. Faneye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 1 16 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430120 Chemical Constituents of the Volatile Derived from the Black Garlic Processing <p>Pungent gas released from the black garlic production was analyzed by Gas Chromatography to clarify compounds included. Three major constituents as ammonia, sulfide-group and aldehyde-group were identified as stimulating agents. Vegetables (plants) released-gas from garlic, onion, horse radish, et al. showed bacteria killing activity against <em>P. aeruginosa, B. natto</em>, enterohemorrhagic <em>E. coli</em> O157, MRSA and <em>C. albicans</em>. Scanning electron micrographs showed that anti-bacteria mechanisms by the volatile seem different depending on species of vegetables (plants).</p> Hamasuke Hamano Chihiro Sutoh Yoshiyuki Osanai Jin-ichi Sasaki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 1 5 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430121 Bacteriological Assessment of Chicken Meat, Chicken Meat Products and Its Impact of Human Enteric Infections in Taif Governorate <p>From different shops and supermarkets at Taif governorate in KSA; a total number of 105 samples were collected. They were 35 samples from raw chicken meat, 35 samples from frozen chicken meat burger and 35 samples from chicken meat luncheon. The samples were examined for their organoleptic and bacteriological quality; the results revealed that, 8.6% and 2.9% of the examined raw chicken meat and frozen chicken burger were unaccepted while all examined samples of chicken-luncheon were accepted.</p> <p>The bacteriological&nbsp; examination revealed that, the bacterial counts in frozen chicken burger samples were higher than that detected in raw chicken meat and chicken luncheon samples whereas 51.4%, of the frozen chicken burger were exceeded the permissible limit<strong>,</strong> but 45.7% of the raw chicken meat samples exceeded the permissible limit<strong>,</strong> while 20% from the chicken luncheon samples exceeded the permissible limit<strong>,</strong> moreover,<em> E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloaca, Klebsiella aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia stuartii</em> and <em>Providencia rettergii</em> could be isolated from the examined samples of raw chicken meat and frozen chicken burger in varying percentages ranged from 2.86 to 22.85% and 2.86 to 20.00% respectively, while <em>Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, P. vulgaris</em> and <em>Morganella morganii</em> only were detected in chicken luncheon in a percentage varying from 5.17 to 17.14%.</p> <p>Furthermore, <em>Campylobacter jejuni </em>were isolated in a percentage of 14.3, 8.8 and 2.9% from the former examined samples respectively, while<em> Salmonella </em>organism were detected in raw chicken meat samples in a percentage of 5.7% but failed to be isolated from frozen chicken burger and chicken luncheon samples.</p> <p>The relationship between total aerobic count and the incidence of <em>Campylobacter jejuni</em> and<em> Salmonella </em>pathogens as well as the public health significance of the isolated organisms and preventive measures to improve the quality of the products were discussed.</p> Ahmed M. A. Mansour ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-28 2019-11-28 1 10 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430123 Changes in the Ripening Characteristics and Shelf Life of Mango Fruits as Related to the Application of Coating Based on Cocoa Leaf Extracts <p>The influence of edible coatings based on cocoa leaf extracts on the ripening of ''Belle-Dame'' mangoes has been evaluated, to contribute to the improvement of the shelf life of these fruits after harvest. There were overall treatment-independent decreases in the firmness and chlorophylls levels, and increases in total soluble solids content, water content, physiological weight loss and β-carotene concentration during the ripening of mango fruits. These variations were very rapid in control fruits, reflecting an accelerated ripening process that led to the senescence of these fruits from day 9 after harvest onwards. In treated fruits, variations of different parameters were slow with significant differences between the treated fruits and controls. These inhibitory effects of coatings resulted in a delay of the ripening process and consequently to a shift of the onset of senescence to 12 days after harvest. In addition to the extension of shelf life by three days, treatments of mango fruits by dipping them in solutions containing cocoa leaf extracts induced a higher accumulation of β-carotene in coated fruits as compared to controls, thereby enhancing the nutritional value of the former.</p> Kouete Jarvin Ovaric Phounzong-Tafre Eugène Aghofack-Nguemezi Jean ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 1 13 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430124 Influence of Foliar Nutrition on Seed Setting Percentage, Yield and Economics of Red Gram (Cajanus cajan (L.)) under Irrigated Condition <p>Field experiments were conducted to study the influence of foliar nutrition on pod setting percentage, yield and economics of red gram (<em>Cajanus cajan (L.) </em>&nbsp;under the irrigated condition at Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Paiyur - 635 112, Tamil Nadu, India in Kharif season of 2016-17. To study the effect of different nutrient sources the following treatments were imposed. The treatments include the foliar application of 2% DAP twice at flowering and 15 days thereafter first spray (T<sub>1</sub>), Foliar application of TNAU pulse wonder at 5 kg/ha at peak flowering (T<sub>2</sub>), Foliar application of 0.5% MAP twice at flowering and 15 days thereafter first spray (T<sub>3</sub>). Foliar application of CCC 200 ppm twice at flowering and 15 days thereafter (T<sub>4</sub>) and Control (water spray)(T<sub>5</sub>). Among the treatments, it was concluded that application of 0.5% mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) at flowering and 15 days after the first spray recorded the higher grain and stalk yield of 1522 and 6222 kg ha-<sup>1</sup> in red gram respectively and also recorded a higher gross income of Rs. 91320, net income of Rs. 50520 and B: C ratio of 2.2. Further, the yield increase was 25% higher yield over control (water spray) and 12% higher over-application of CCC 200 ppm twice at flowering and 15 days after the first spray.</p> C. Sivakumar Krishnaveni . M. Pandiyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 1 9 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430125 Evaluation of the Therapeutic Role of Citrullus lanatus and Annona muricata Fruit Extracts on Cyhalothrin-induced Toxicity <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic role of <em>Citrullus lanatus</em> and <em>Annona muricata</em> fruit Extracts on Cyhalothrin-induced Toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Experimental Design:</strong> The study was a completely randomized design employing relevant statistical tools for analysis and interpretation.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was carried out in the Reproductive Physiology and Genetics Research Laboratory of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Rivers State. The experiment lasted for 35 days.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The body weight of the animals was monitored and recorded twice a week throughout the duration of the experiment. For Biochemical analysis, blood samples were collected by ocular puncture into sterile tubes and serum separated by centrifugation at 2500 g for 10 mins and stored for determination of some liver biomarkers including ALT, ALP, AST, Total Cholesterol and Glucose using their respective kits. For histopathological analysis of Liver and Testis 0.5 g of the each organ was fixed in 10% neutral formalin and sectioned with a digital microtome (AO Spencer, No. 820) at 5 µm thick. Histological sections mounted on slides were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&amp;E). Photomicrographs were generated at X40 magnification and interpreted. Data from biochemical analyses were subjected to one-way ANOVA.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All experimental animals showed a non-significant (P&gt;0.05) increase in body weight throughout the experimental period. The range of values for Organ weight observed in the other treatmental groups were closer to that of the control group than the group exposed to Cyhalothrin only. The level of ALP, AST and ALT significantly p&lt;0.05) increased in groups exposed to Cyhalothrin only but reduced with administration of 100% <em>Citrullus lanatus </em>and<em> Annona muricata </em>extract<em>. </em>Plate 1A shows the normal architecture of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenic elements in the control group, the Seminiferous tubules and epithelium of the group exposed to cyhalothrin only is characterized with large vacuoles devoid of spermatogenic elements. Testicular tissue of animals co-administered <em>Citrullus lantanus</em> and <em>Annona muricata</em> extracts shows regenerating&nbsp; epithelium filled with maturing spermatozoa.. Photomicrograph of the liver epithelium in the control group shows normal architecture of liver cell filled with normal hepatocytes. Hepatocytes degeneration and lesion in the liver cells of animals exposed to Cyhalothrin only was observed (Plate 2B).&nbsp; Plate 2C and D showed regeneration of hepatocytes with fewer lesion in the liver epithelium while fully regenerated liver epithelium of animals was observed in Plate 2 E.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cyhalothrin may not have obvious effect on the organ weights, body weight and gonadosomatic indices but silently destroys target cells of the body overtime. Cyhalothin induced oxidative and reproductive stress in exposed animals while from the groups co-administered <em>Citrullus lanatus</em> and<em> Annona muricata</em> the therapeutic role of this indigenous fruits on Cyhalothin-induced toxicity was observed both in the liver and testicular epithelium and therefore can be used as Supplement and a suitable first aid for pesticide related poisoning.</p> Lilian Kelechi Titus Eme Efioanwan Orlu Adetutu Olubunmi Obulor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 1 10 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430126 Impact of Metal Ion Substitution on the Activity and Stability of Saccharifying Raw Starch Digesting Amylase from Aspergillus carbonarius <p>Though raw starch digesting amylases can be utilized in numerous bioprocesses, poor activity and stability remain a limiting factor.&nbsp; In this study, the effect of metal ion substitution on the activity and stability of the RSDA from <em>Aspergillus carbonarius</em> was investigated. The amylase was inactivated using the chelating agent ethylene di aminotetraacetic acid (EDTA) and reactivated using different metal ions. The effect of different metal ions on the reactivation of the amylase activity was investigated. Impact of the metal ions on the stability of the amylase was also studied. Kinetic constants of the native enzyme were compared to the metal reactivated holoenzyme. Most efficient was 5 mM concentration of Co<sup>2+</sup> with 94.6% activity recovery. Others included 5 mM Zn<sup>2+</sup> (77.7%) and 5 mM Ca<sup>2+</sup> (68.7%). Incubating the Co<sup>2+</sup> activated amylase in 10 mM Mn<sup>2+</sup> further stimulated the activity of the amylase to 136.7%. Compared to the metal ions tested, Mn<sup>2+</sup> had the most stabilizing effect on the amylase; the amylase exhibited 148.2% and 136.5% activity at 70ºC and 80ºC respectively in the presence of 5 mM Mn<sup>2+</sup>. Ca<sup>2+</sup> inhibited the amylase activity and inhibition rate increased with increasing concentration of Ca<sup>2+</sup> concentrations. <em>K<sub>m</sub></em> of the reactivated amylase was 0.18 mg/ml.</p> Tochukwu Nwamaka Nwagu Hideki Aoyagi Bartholomew Okolo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 1 11 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430127 Identification of in-vitro PEG Mediated Drought Tolerance Genotype in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) <p>Drought is a serious bottleneck in the production of rice globally. For this, an experiment was conducted <em>in-vitro</em> on six rice genotypes viz. BRRI Dhan-28, Begunbahar, Burikatari, Pashpai, Dular and Begunbichi to investigate the effect polyethylene glycol (PEG) mediated artificial drought on morpho-physiological parameters such as germination percentage, shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, turgid weight, relative water content and proline accumulation. Here, different doses of PEG-6000 viz. 0gL<sup>-1</sup>, 15gL<sup>-1</sup>, 30gL<sup>-1</sup>, 45gL<sup>-1</sup> and 60gL<sup>-1</sup> were used with Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. The results demonstrated that BRRI Dhan-28, Burikatari and Dular revealed greater performance at control conditions but at the highest degree of water stress conditions only Burikatari showed higher mean value for all parameters studied. Again, Begunbichi followed by BRRI Dhan-28 exhibited the lowest mean value for almost all traits except for proline accumulation. Here, water stress decreased the performance of morpho-physiological characters except proline accumulation in rice. The cluster analysis was performed and distributed into three groups where there was a significant variation among the clusters at different water stress conditions. Here, the genotype Burikatari is more diverse giving maximum Euclidian distances in drought treatments. It could be considered as a parent in the hybridization program against Begunbahar, Dular and Paspai. Therefore, considering the mean performances and cluster analysis, Burikatari exhibited greater performances against the highest degree of drought conditions. This genotype may bear drought-tolerant gene for which could be utilized for further development of drought-tolerant variety and gene transfer.</p> Shahriar Rahman Shovon Md. Arifuzzaman Most. Farzana Haque Bhabendra Kumar Biswas Most. Moriom Pervin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-17 2020-01-17 1 10 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430128