Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Biology &amp; Biotechnology (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1081)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JABB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Biology &amp; Biotechnology’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology 2394-1081 Antifungal and Preservative Effect of Different Species of Aframomum (K. Schum) on Fungi Isolated from Raw Meat and Fish <p><em>Aframomum </em>species (<em>Aframomum danielli, Aframomum melegueta and Aframomum sceptrum</em>) are used traditionally as medicine and food preservatives. Synthetic preservatives have been reported to be carcinogenic; hence, the continuous search for a natural preservative. This study was designed to validate the efficacy of the three named <em>Aframomum</em> species as a preservative against fungi that causes spoilage in raw fish and meat. The methanolic extracts of the samples were screened against <em>Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus ochraceus </em>and <em>Trichoderma </em>sp. using pour plate technique. The fungi were isolated from the raw fish and meat by the method of serial dilution then pour plated into Potatoes Dextro Agar (PDA) incubated at 37ºC for 7 days. The fungi observed were subcultured to get pure culture. The three samples showed significant antifungal activities against <em>Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus ochraceus </em>and <em>Trichoderma </em>sp. at 25%, 50% and 75% concentrations. The significant antifungal activities displayed by extract of these samples could be attributed to their phytochemical and nutritional components of the samples as well as their antioxidant activity. The three samples could be valuable natural preservatives with additional therapeutic potential.</p> O. Y. Aguda S. O. Bankole E. A. Adekunle O. I. Bolanle-Ojo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-02 2019-11-02 1 7 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430119 Molecular Relationship among Mangifera indica L. (Mango) Varieties Using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Marker <p>This study established phylogenetic relationships among mango varieties collected from NIHORT, Ogbomosho, Saki, Oyo, Isehin and Ibadan using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers with a view of determining their polymorphism, gene and allelic diversities. Sweet Mango UI Acc-3 had the highest total genomic DNA of 1379.00µl, while OYOM ACC-5 had the lowest concentration of 0.9 gl from total genomic DNA of 0.25.&nbsp; The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 4 with an average of 2.50 alleles per locus in which the highest allelic frequency of 0.97 was recorded for EF 592217 and EF 59210 primers. However, Primer SSR20 had the highest information of polymorphic at 57.57% and highest gene diversity of 0.64. The result from the dendrogram showed that out of the three major clusters generated, the second delineated the highest number of 12 varieties in which Ogbomosho Mango Acc-2 (OGBM ACC-2) branched out at a distance of 0.15 from other varieties. Sweet Mango UI 3, Ogbomosho Mango Acc-2 (OGBM ACC-2), Julie Mango are potential future breeding accessions while Primer SSR20 could therefore be considered for further molecular breeding of other mango varieties and other tree crops in the Mangifera family.</p> I. I. Ajayi O. J. Olawuyi A. E. Ayodele A. O. Faneye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 1 16 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430120 Chemical Constituents of the Volatile Derived from the Black Garlic Processing <p>Pungent gas released from the black garlic production was analyzed by Gas Chromatography to clarify compounds included. Three major constituents as ammonia, sulfide-group and aldehyde-group were identified as stimulating agents. Vegetables (plants) released-gas from garlic, onion, horse radish, et al. showed bacteria killing activity against <em>P. aeruginosa, B. natto</em>, enterohemorrhagic <em>E. coli</em> O157, MRSA and <em>C. albicans</em>. Scanning electron micrographs showed that anti-bacteria mechanisms by the volatile seem different depending on species of vegetables (plants).</p> Hamasuke Hamano Chihiro Sutoh Yoshiyuki Osanai Jin-ichi Sasaki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 1 5 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430121 Bacteriological Assessment of Chicken Meat, Chicken Meat Products and Its Impact of Human Enteric Infections in Taif Governorate <p>From different shops and supermarkets at Taif governorate in KSA; a total number of 105 samples were collected. They were 35 samples from raw chicken meat, 35 samples from frozen chicken meat burger and 35 samples from chicken meat luncheon. The samples were examined for their organoleptic and bacteriological quality; the results revealed that, 8.6% and 2.9% of the examined raw chicken meat and frozen chicken burger were unaccepted while all examined samples of chicken-luncheon were accepted.</p> <p>The bacteriological&nbsp; examination revealed that, the bacterial counts in frozen chicken burger samples were higher than that detected in raw chicken meat and chicken luncheon samples whereas 51.4%, of the frozen chicken burger were exceeded the permissible limit<strong>,</strong> but 45.7% of the raw chicken meat samples exceeded the permissible limit<strong>,</strong> while 20% from the chicken luncheon samples exceeded the permissible limit<strong>,</strong> moreover,<em> E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloaca, Klebsiella aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia stuartii</em> and <em>Providencia rettergii</em> could be isolated from the examined samples of raw chicken meat and frozen chicken burger in varying percentages ranged from 2.86 to 22.85% and 2.86 to 20.00% respectively, while <em>Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, P. vulgaris</em> and <em>Morganella morganii</em> only were detected in chicken luncheon in a percentage varying from 5.17 to 17.14%.</p> <p>Furthermore, <em>Campylobacter jejuni </em>were isolated in a percentage of 14.3, 8.8 and 2.9% from the former examined samples respectively, while<em> Salmonella </em>organism were detected in raw chicken meat samples in a percentage of 5.7% but failed to be isolated from frozen chicken burger and chicken luncheon samples.</p> <p>The relationship between total aerobic count and the incidence of <em>Campylobacter jejuni</em> and<em> Salmonella </em>pathogens as well as the public health significance of the isolated organisms and preventive measures to improve the quality of the products were discussed.</p> Ahmed M. A. Mansour ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-28 2019-11-28 1 10 10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430123