Main Article Content
Aim: This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical constituent of ethanol extract of Aju Mbaise herbal mixture.
Study Design: In the course of the experiment, fresh samples of the plants that make up Aju Mbaise were collected and identified as Cnestis ferruginea, Xylopia aethiopica, Uvaria chamae, Palisota hirsuta, Scleria sp., Napoleona imperialis, Dialium guineense, Combretum racemosun, and Heterotis rotundifolia respectively. The fresh plants were air-dried, cut into small pieces and blended before the extraction process. Ethanol was used as the extraction solvent.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Research Laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, in July 2018.
Methodology: The qualitative phytochemical analysis was determined by Standard methods described by Sofowara (1993), for testing alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids, while the quantitative phytochemical was estimated spectrophotometrically.
Results: The phytochemical result showed the presence of alkaloids (8.69%), flavonoids (19.10%), glycosides (6.86%), hydrogen cyanide (0.92%), phenols (31.56%), saponins (0.83%), steroids (0.94%), tannins (16.80%), and terpenoids (14.31%).
Conclusion: The study showed that ethanol extract of Aju Mbaise herbal mixture contains tremendous amount of phytochemicals.
Heinrich M, Barnes J, Gibbon S, Williamson EM. Fundamentals of pharma-cognosy and phytotherapy. In Kingdom A.D. (Ed.). Churchil Livingstone, (2nd Ed.). Elsevier Science Ltd., UK. 2004;211-219.
Shi QIU, Hui SUN, Zhang AH, Hong-Ying XU, Guang-Li YAN, Ying HAN, Xi-Jun WANG. Natural alkaloids: Basic aspects, biological roles, and future perspectives. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines. 2014;12(6):401-406.
Harbourne JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern technique of plant analysis. 2nd edition London: Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1998;282.
Kittakoop P, Mahidol C, Ruchirawat S. Alkaloids as important scaffolds in therapeutic drugs for the treatments of cancer, tuberculosis, and smoking cessation. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 2014;14(2):239-252.
Russo P, Frustaci A, Del Bufalo A, Fini M, Cesario A. Multitarget drugs of plants origin acting on Alzheimer's disease. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2013;20(13): 1686–93.
Sinatra RS, Jahr JS, Watkins-Pitchford JM. (Eds.). The essence of analgesia and analgesics. Cambridge University Press. 2010;82–90.
Cushnie TT, Cushnie B, Lamb AJ. Alkaloids: An overview of their anti-bacterial, antibiotic-enhancing and anti-virulence activities. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2014;44(5):377-386.
Robbers JE, Speedie MK, Tyler VE. Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechno-logy. Williams & Wilkins. 1996;143–185.
Spencer JPE. Flavonoids: Modulators of brain function. British Journal of Nutrition. 2008;99:60–77.
Kyle J, Butchart C, McNeill G, Corley J, Gow AJ, Starr JM, Deary IJ. Flavonoid intake in relation to cognitive function in later life in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. British Journal of Nutrition. 2011;106(1): 141-148.
Yamamoto Y, Gaynor RB. Therapeutic potential of inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in the treatment of inflammation and cancer. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2001;107(2):135–42.
Cazarolli LH, Zanatta L, Alberton EH, Figueiredo MS, Folador P, Damazio RG, Pizzolatti MG, Silva FR. Flavonoids: Prospective drug candidates. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 2008;8(13):1429–1440.
Cushnie TPT, Lamb AJ. Recent advances in understanding the antibacterial pro-perties of flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2011;38(2):99–107.
Manner S, Skogman M, Goeres D, Vuorela P, Fallarero A. Systematic exploration of natural and synthetic flavonoids for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013;14(10):19434–19451.
Cushnie TP, Lamb AJ. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2005;26(5):343– 356.
Friedman M. Overview of antibacterial, antitoxin, antiviral, and antifungal activities of tea flavonoids and teas. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 2007;51(1): 116–134.
Ruela de Sousa RR, Queiroz KCS, Souza ACS, Gurgueira SA, Augusto AC, Miranda MA, Aoyama H. Phosphoprotein levels, MAPK activities and NFκB expression are affected by fisetin. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 2007;22(4):439-444.
Schuier M, Sies H, Billek B, Fischer H. Cocoa-related flavonoids inhibit CFTR-mediated chloride transport across T84 human colon epithelia. Journal of Nutrition. 2005;35(10):2320-2325.
Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Rémésy C, Jiménez L. Polyphenols: Food sources and bioavailability. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004;79(5):727-747.
Gurib-Fakim A. Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 2006;27:1– 93.
Brito-Arias M. Hydrolysis of glycosides. Synthesis and Characterization of Glycosides. 2007;304-313.
Riguera R. Isolating bioactive compounds from marine organisms. Journal of Marine Biotechnology. 1997;5(4):187–193.
Lacaille-Dubois MA, Wagner H. Bioactive saponins from plants: An update. In Studies in natural products chemistry. Elsevier. 2000;21:633-687.
Morrissey JP, Osbourn AE. Fungal resistance to plant antibiotics as a mechanism of pathogenesis. Microbio-logical and Molecular Biological Reviews. 1999;63(3):708-724.
Sun HX, Wang H, Xu HS, Ni Y. Novel polysaccharide adjuvant from the roots of Actinidia eriantha with dual Th1 and Th2 potentiating activity. Vaccine. 2009;27(30): 3984-3991.
Schofield P, Mbugua DM, Pell AN. Analysis of condensed tannins: A review. Animal Feed Science Technology. 2001; 91:21-40.
De Bruyne T, Pieters L, Deelstra H, Vlietinck A. Condensed vegetables tannins: Biodiversity in structure and biological activities. Biochemical System Ecology. 1999;27:445–459.
Okuda T, Ito H. Tannins of constant structure in medicinal and food plants—hydrolyzable tannins and polyphenols related to tannins. Molecules. 2011;16(3): 2191-2217.
Gunasekar PG, Prabhakaran K, Li L, Zhang L, Isom GE, Borowitz JL. Receptor mechanisms mediating cyanide generation in PC12 cells and rat brain. Neuroscience Research. 2004;49(1):13-18.
Dillard CJ, German JB. Phytochemicals: Nutraceuticals and human health. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2000;80(12):1744-1756.
Batawila K, Kokou K, Akpagana K, Koumaglo K, Bouchet P. Activité antifongique d'une espèce en voie de disparition de la flore togolaise: Conyza aegyptiaca (L.) Ait. var. lineariloba (DC.) O. Hoffm.(Asteraceae). Acta Botanica Gallica. 2002;149(1):41-48.
Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1996;20(7): 933-956.
Lubik AA, Nouri M, Truong S, Ghaffari M, Adomat HH, Corey E, Cox ME, Li N, Guns ES, Yenki P, Buttyan R, Pham S. Paracrine sonic hedgehog signaling contributes significantly to acquired steroidgenesis in the prostate tumor microenvironment. International Journal of Cancer. 2017;140(2):358-369.
Firn R. Nature's chemicals: The natural products that shaped our world. Oxford University Press on Demand; 2010.
Specter M. A life of its own. The New Yorker. 2009;28.
Ogueke CC, Owuamanam CI, Onyedinma C, Iroanya A, Bede EN, Nwachukwu IN. Antibacterial activity, phytochemical properties and mineral Content of “Aju Mbaise” decoction: A liquid extract administered to nursing mothers. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences. 2016; 37(1):114-121.
Harborne JB. Introduction to Ecological Biochemistry. Academic Press; 2014.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. In: Pal SB. (Ed.). Pharmacognosy. (11th Ed.) Tindal LTD, London. 1985;60- 75.
Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and medicine in Africa. John Whilley Spectrum Books, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1993;120-123.
Kumaran A, Karunakaran R. Activity-guided isolation and identification of free radical-scavenging components from an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus. Food Chemistry. 2007;100:356–361.
Awah FM, Uzoegwu PN, Ifeonu P, Oyugi JO, Rutherford J, Yao XJ, Fehrmann F, Fowke KR, Eze MO. Free radical scavenging activity, phenolic content and cytotoxicity of selected Nigerian medicinal plants. Food Chemistry. 2012;131(4): 1279–1286.
Madaan R, Bansal G, Kumar S, Sharma A. Estimation of total phenols and flavonoids in extracts of Actaea spicata roots and antioxidant activity studies. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011;73(6): 666.
Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: Issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2013; 4(3):202–4.
Ezejindu CN, Iro OK. Antibacterial activity, phytochemical properties and mineral content of “Aju Mbaise” decoction administered to nursing mothers. Direct Research Journal of Health and Pharmacology. 2017;5(3):33-38.
Rakesh DD, Handa SS, Vasisht K. Compendium of medicinal and aromatic plants ASIA. ICS UNIDO. Asia. 2006;2: 305.
Nia R, Paper DH, Essien EE. Evaluation of the anti-oxidant and anti-angiogenic effects of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre. The African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2004;7:129–132.
Adisa AR, Farooq AD, Iqbal MC. Protection of CCl4-induced liver and kidney damage by phenolic compounds in leaf extracts of Cnestis ferruginea (de Candolle). Pharmacognosy Research. 2014;6(1):19–28.
Onocha PA, Audu EO, Ekundayo O, Dosumu OO. Phytochemical and anti-microbial properties of extracts of Combretum racemosum. Acta Horti-culturae. 2005;675:97–101.
Arogba SS, Ajiboro A, Odukwe IJ. A physiochemical study Nigerian Velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) fruit. The Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2006;66:533-534.
Etekpo SD, N’Gaman-Kouassi CC, Mamyrbekova-Békro JA, Békro Y. Antioxidant profiles of alcoholic tinctures from Heterotis rotundifolia (sm.) by DPPH radical trapping. European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;5(10):39-45.
Chah KF, Eze CA, Emuelosi CE, Esimone CO. Antibacterial and wound healing properties of methanolic extracts of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;104:164-167.
Kupeli E, Yesilada E. Flavonoids with anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity from Cistus laurifolius L. leaves through bioassay-guided procedures. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007;112(3):524-530.
Clavin M, Gorzalczany S, Macho A, Munoz E, Ferraro G, Acevedo C, Martino V. Anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids from Eupatorium arnottianum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007;112(3):585-589.
Achigan-Dako EG, Pasquini MW, Assogba Komlan F, N’danikou S, Yédomonhan H, Dansi A, Ambrose-Oji B. Traditional vegetables in Benin. Institut National des Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, Imprimeries du CENAP, Cotonou; 2010.
Somova LI, Shode FO, Moodley K, Govender Y. Cardiovascular and diuretic activity of Kaurene derivatives of Xylopia aethiopica and Alepidea amatymbica. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2001;77: 165–74.
Obasi NB, Igboechi AC, Anuforo DC. Studies of the anti diarrheal potentials of some composite plants. Medicinal plants in a developing economy. Proceeding of a workshop organized by the Nigeria society of Nigeria. 1990;108-116.
Stray F. The national guide to medicinal herbs and Plants. Tiger Books Inter-national London. 1998;12-16.
Okwu DE, Iroabuchi F. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity screening of aqueous and ethanolic root extracts of Uvaria chamae (Beuv) and Cnestis ferruginea. The Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria. 2004;29(2): 112-114.
Okwu DE. Phytochemicals, vitamins and mineral contents of two Nigeria medicinal plants. International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Sciences. 2005; 1(4):375- 381.
Narender T, Khaliq T, Puri A. Anti-dyslipidemic activity of furano-flavonoids isolated from Indigofera tinctoria. Bio-organic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2006;16(13):3411-3414.
Okwu DE. Flavouring properties of spices on cassava Fufu. African Journal of Root and Tuber Crops. 1999;3(2):19-21.
Shimada T. Salivary proteins as a defense against dietary tannins. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2006;32(6):1149-1163.
Parekh J, Sumitra CV. In vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of some Indian medicinal plants. Turkish Journal of Biology. 2007;31:53-58.
Dharmanda S. Gallnuts and the uses of tannins in Chinese Medicine-A paper presented at the Institute for Traditional Medicine. Portlant, Oregon. 2003;3:941-945.
Hudson T. Townsend letter for doctors. 1996;156.
Gautam B, Vadivel V, Stuetz W, Biesalski HK. Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: Antioxidant and type II diabetes–related enzyme inhibition properties. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2012;63(2):242-245.
Ullah MF, Khan MW. Food as medicine: Potential therapeutic tendencies of plant derived polyphenolic compounds. The Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2008;9(2):187-196.
Yuan W, Zhou L, Deng G, Wang P, Creech D, Li S. Anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of Vaccinium L. in Texas, USA; 2011.