Evaluation of the Therapeutic Role of Citrullus lanatus and Annona muricata Fruit Extracts on Cyhalothrin-induced Toxicity

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Lilian Kelechi Titus
Eme Efioanwan Orlu
Adetutu Olubunmi Obulor


Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic role of Citrullus lanatus and Annona muricata fruit Extracts on Cyhalothrin-induced Toxicity.

Experimental Design: The study was a completely randomized design employing relevant statistical tools for analysis and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Reproductive Physiology and Genetics Research Laboratory of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Rivers State. The experiment lasted for 35 days.

Methodology: The body weight of the animals was monitored and recorded twice a week throughout the duration of the experiment. For Biochemical analysis, blood samples were collected by ocular puncture into sterile tubes and serum separated by centrifugation at 2500 g for 10 mins and stored for determination of some liver biomarkers including ALT, ALP, AST, Total Cholesterol and Glucose using their respective kits. For histopathological analysis of Liver and Testis 0.5 g of the each organ was fixed in 10% neutral formalin and sectioned with a digital microtome (AO Spencer, No. 820) at 5 µm thick. Histological sections mounted on slides were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Photomicrographs were generated at X40 magnification and interpreted. Data from biochemical analyses were subjected to one-way ANOVA.

Results: All experimental animals showed a non-significant (P>0.05) increase in body weight throughout the experimental period. The range of values for Organ weight observed in the other treatmental groups were closer to that of the control group than the group exposed to Cyhalothrin only. The level of ALP, AST and ALT significantly p<0.05) increased in groups exposed to Cyhalothrin only but reduced with administration of 100% Citrullus lanatus and Annona muricata extract. Plate 1A shows the normal architecture of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenic elements in the control group, the Seminiferous tubules and epithelium of the group exposed to cyhalothrin only is characterized with large vacuoles devoid of spermatogenic elements. Testicular tissue of animals co-administered Citrullus lantanus and Annona muricata extracts shows regenerating  epithelium filled with maturing spermatozoa.. Photomicrograph of the liver epithelium in the control group shows normal architecture of liver cell filled with normal hepatocytes. Hepatocytes degeneration and lesion in the liver cells of animals exposed to Cyhalothrin only was observed (Plate 2B).  Plate 2C and D showed regeneration of hepatocytes with fewer lesion in the liver epithelium while fully regenerated liver epithelium of animals was observed in Plate 2 E.

Conclusion: Cyhalothrin may not have obvious effect on the organ weights, body weight and gonadosomatic indices but silently destroys target cells of the body overtime. Cyhalothin induced oxidative and reproductive stress in exposed animals while from the groups co-administered Citrullus lanatus and Annona muricata the therapeutic role of this indigenous fruits on Cyhalothin-induced toxicity was observed both in the liver and testicular epithelium and therefore can be used as Supplement and a suitable first aid for pesticide related poisoning.

Antioxidant, cyhalothrin, hepatotoxicity, reproductive stress, spermatozoa.

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How to Cite
Kelechi Titus, L., Efioanwan Orlu, E., & Olubunmi Obulor, A. (2020). Evaluation of the Therapeutic Role of Citrullus lanatus and Annona muricata Fruit Extracts on Cyhalothrin-induced Toxicity. Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, 22(4), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/jabb/2019/v22i430126
Original Research Article


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