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Envenomation is a serious public health and occupational hazard in tropical and subtropical countries. Antivenom serum treatment has been related to extreme hypersensitivity, high cost, and inaccessibility. Consequently, therapeutic plants have been investigated to give an alternative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the methanolic extract and fractions of Tamarindus indica seeds to neutralize the hemolytic, anticoagulant and hemorrhagic activities of Bitis arietans venom. The powdered form of Tamarindus indica seed was extracted using methanol. The methanol extract was further fractionated using butanol solvent. The aqueous fraction of the methanolic extract inhibited hemolysis caused by crude venom by 95.5%, while methanolic extract significantly reduced the anticoagulant time of crude venom to 10.2%. The in vivo hemorrhagic activity of the crude venom of Bitis arietans was neutralized by both the crude methanolic extract and the subsequent two fractions of Tamarindus indica seed. However, the crude methanolic extract was found to be the most active by reducing the hemorrhage diameter caused by crude venom to 39%. The findings of this present research work demonstrated a very good antivenom properties of the seeds of Tamarindus indica, which suggests that it could be a potential source of effective, and safe compounds with inhibitory activities against Bitis arietans envenomation.
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