Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil Using Pig Droppings and Bone Char

Main Article Content

Ejikeme Ugwoha
Victor Emeka Amah
Gabriel Obiosabofu Oweh


Oil extraction operations as well as equipment failure and infrastructure vandalism have caused serious environmental pollution with crude oil spills world-wide. The remediation of the polluted sites is an environmental problem beckoning for solution. In this study, the possibility of pig droppings and pig bone char mixture (biostimulant) to stimulate and optimize crude oil biodegradation in soil was investigated. Exactly 500g of loamy soil was spiked with 3% (w/w) of crude oil. The spiked soil was amended with varying percentage mixtures of the biostimulant and labelled A – E. The spiked soil without biostimulant served as the Control. Each experiment was setup in six (6) replicates, carried out for six weeks, and destructively sampled and analysed on a weekly basis. The removal efficiencies of the biostimulated and unbiostimulated soils were observed to range from 66.70 to 86.70% and 3.69%, respectively. The biodegradation first-order rate constants ranged from 0.1978 to 0.3391wk-1 and 0.0050wk-1 for the biostimulated and unbiostimulated soils, respectively. Optimum removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was observed for biostimulated soil C comprising 50% bone char and 50% pig droppings. Results from biostimulated soils A, B, D and E indicated that pig droppings is a more effective biostimulant than pig bone char. A first-order kinetic model adequately predicted the removal of TPH with the optimum biostimulant. It is concluded that using agro-organic waste materials such as pig droppings and pig bone char in a ratio of 1:1 can offer a simple, effective, inexpensive and environmentally friendly solution to the problem of soil contamination with crude oil.

Bioremediation, crude oil, pig droppings, bone char, contaminated soil

Article Details

How to Cite
Ugwoha, E., Amah, V. E., & Oweh, G. O. (2020). Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil Using Pig Droppings and Bone Char. Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, 23(8), 13-24.
Original Research Article


Erdogan EE, Karaca A. Bioremediation of crude oil polluted soils. Asian Journal of Biotechnology. 2011;3(3):206-213.

Bijay T, Ajay KKC, Anish G. A review on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in soil. Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2012;8(I):164-170.

Ofoegbu RU, Momoh YOL, Nwaogazie IL. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil Using Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers. Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology. 2014;6:1-6.

Omotosho J, Momoh OLY, Ikebude CF. Application of Bone Char in Bioremediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soil: Optimization and Kinetic Analysis. Journal of Research Information in Civil Engineering. 2018;15(4):2361-2374.

Yuniati MD. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil: A Review. Global Colloquium on GeoSciences and Engineering 2017. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2018;118:1-7.

Ali N, Dashti N, Khanafer M, Al-Awadhi H, Radwan S. Bioremediation of soils saturated with spilled crude oil, Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):1116.

Fan C, Krishnamurthy S. Enzymes for Enhancing Bioremediation of Petroleum- Contaminated Soils: A Brief Review. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 1995;45(6):453-460

Ugwoha E. Modeling the Biodegradation of Used Engine Oil in Soil. IOSR Journal of Engineering. 2020;10(7):19-28.

Ugwoha E, Iwuchukwu OL. () Modeling the Bioremediation of Petrol Contaminated Soil by Clogged-Drainage Bacteria. Uniport Journal of Engineering and Scientific Research. 2020;5(SI):71-81

Udeh NU, Nwaogazie IL, Momoh Y. Bio-remediation of a crude oil contaminated soil using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Advances in Applied Science Research, 2013;4(2):362-369.

Wang X, Zheng J, Han Z, Chen H. Bioremediation of crude oil‐contaminated soil by hydrocarbon‐degrading microorganisms immobilized on humic acid‐modified biofuel ash. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 2019;94(6):1904-1912.

Ugwoha E, Amah VE, Okwuosa AL. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil Using Goat Droppings. Uniport Journal of Engineering and Scientific Research. 2018;2(1):16-24.

Teknikio JB, Adeyemo JA, Ojeniyi SO, Tate JO. Isolation and Identification of Bacteria in Petroleum Hydrocarbons Polluted Soils in North-West Bayelsa State. Covenant Journal of Physical & Life Sciences (CJPL). 2018;1(2).