Mortality of Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to Spinetoram Toxic Bait in the Laboratory
Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology,
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) cause significant losses during the production and marketing of horticultural products. Brazilian growers usually adopt full-coverage insecticide spraying to control fruit flies, but toxic bait is a more strategic technique, because reach efficacy and the target surface is the foliage and branches. We provide information regarding the toxicity of spinetoram bait to two fruit fly species in the laboratory as an alternative to organophosphates and the specific spinosad formulation. We tested toxic baits in the laboratory, using commercial hydrolysed corn protein (10% v/v) plus 90 g, 120 g, 150 g and 180 g dilutions of spinetoram 250 WG (commercial product/1,000 litres of water). All toxic baits were compared with an untreated control (only protein) for the adults of females and males of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) up to 30 hours of exposure. Dry food for adults was included in all dilutions (5% w/v). In addition, we tested the residual effect of toxic baits applied to the leaves of mandarin seedlings. We used the same treatments of the earlier bioassay without dry food, collecting treated leaves and exposing them to C. capitata (medfly) females for 24 hours in the laboratory. Leaves were collected 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days after application. Overall, medfly adults were more susceptible to spinetoram baits than A. obliqua. All toxic baits resulted in 100% C. capitata mortality 24 hours after initial exposure, and the toxic bait at 150 g/1,000 L of water resulted in the maximum mortality (96%) in A. obliqua. Except for 90 g of spinetoram bait at 30 days after application, all spinetoram bait concentrations resulted in significantly, more dead C. capitata females than the control over all tested periods in the residual bioassay. At 30 days after application, spinetoram baits at 120 g, 150 g and 180 g resulted in 85%, 87% and 86% mortality in C. capitata, respectively. Spinetoram toxic baits have proven promising for long-term fruit fly management.
- residual effect.
How to Cite
Louzeiro LRF, Souza-Filho MF, Raga A, Gisloti LJ. Incidence of frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae), fruit losses and the dispersal of flies through the transportation of fresh fruit. J Asia Pac Entomol 2021;24:50-60.
Zucchi RA, Moraes RCB. Fruit flies in Brazil – host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly; 2021.
(Accessed on 3rd. November 2021).
Birke A, Guillén L, Midgarden D, Aluja M. Fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and A. grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae): three pestiferous tropical fruit flies that could potentially expand their range to temperate areas. In Peña JE, editor. Potential Invasive Pests. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 2013:192-213.
Zucchi RA, Moraes RCB. Fruit flies in Brazil – Anastrepha species their host plants and parasitoids. 2021.
(Accessed on 3rd. November 2021).
Raga A, Sato ME. Effect of spinosad bait against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory. Neotrop. Entomol. 2005;34(5):815-822.
El-Gendy IR, El-Banobi MI, Villanueva-Jimenez JA. Bio-pesticides alternative diazinon to control peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Egyptian J. Biol. Pest Control 2021;31:49.
Díaz-Fleischer F, Pérez-Staples D, Cabrera-Mireles H., Montoya P, Liedo P. Novel insecticides and bait stations for the control of Anastrepha fruit flies in mango orchards. J. Pest. Sci. 2017; 90:865-872.
Thomas DB. Nontarget impact of spinosad GF-120 bait sprays for
control of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Texas citrus. J.
Econ. Entomol. 2006;98:1950–1956.
Urbaneja A, Chueca P, Montón H, Pascual-Ruiz S, Dembilio O, Vanaclocha P, Abad-Moyano R, Pina T, Castañera P. Chemical alternatives to malathion for controlling Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), and their side effects on natural enemies in Spanhish citrus orchards. J. Econ. Entomol. 2009;102(1): 144-151.
Raga A, Sato M E. Toxicity of neonicotinoids to Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Plant Prot. Res. 2011; 51(4):413-419.
Hafsi A, Abbes K, Harbi A, Rahmouni R, Chermiti B. Comparative efficacy of Malathion and spinosad bait sprays against Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Tunisian citrus orchards. J. Entomo.l Zool. Studies. 2015;3:246–249.
Grout TG, Stephen PR, Rison JL. Cyantraniliprole can replace malathion in baits for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Crop Prot. 2018;112: 304–312.
Hsu JC, Feng HT, Wu WJ. Resistance and synergistic effects of insecticides in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Taiwan. J. Econ. Entomol. 2004;97:1682–1688.
Magaña C, Hernãndez-Crespo P, Ortego F, Castañera P. Resistance to malathion in field populations of Ceratitis capitata. J Econ Entomol. 2007;100: 1836–1843.
Haider H, Ahmed S, Khan R.R. Determination of level of insecticide resistance in fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae) by bait bioassay. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2011; 13:815–818.
Demant LL, Baldo FB, Sato ME, Raga A, Paranhos BAJ. Deltamethrin resistance in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae): selections, monitoring and effect of synergist. Crop Protection 2019;121:39-44.
Abubakar M, Ali H, Shad SA, Anees M, Binyameen M. Trichlorfon resistance: its stability and impacts on biological parameters of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Appl Entomol Zool 2021; 56: 473–482.
Bacci L, Lupi D, Savoldelli S, Rossaro B. A review of Spinosyns, a derivative of biological acting substances as a class of insecticides with a broad range of action against many insect pests. J Entomol. Acarol. Res. 2016; 48(1): 5653.
Salgado VL. Studies on the Mode of Action of Spinosad: Insect Symptoms and
Physiological Correlates. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 1998; 60: 91–102.
Yee WL, Alston DG. Effects of spinosad, spinosad bait, and chloronicotinyl insecticides on mortality and control of adult and larval Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 2006;99(5):1722-1732.
Gazit Y, Gavriel S, Akiva R, Timar D. Toxicity of baited spinosad for mulations to Ceratitis capitata: from the laboratory to the application. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 2013;147:120-125.
Sparks TC, Crouse GD, Dripps JE, Anzeveno P, Martynow J, DeAmicis CV, Gifford J. Neural network-based QSAR and insecticide discovery: spinetoram. J. Comput. Aided Mol. Des. 2008;22: 393–401.
Galm U, Sparks TC. Natural product derived insecticides: discovery and development of spinetoram. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2016;43:185–193.
Geng C, Watson GB, Sparks TC. Chapter Three - Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors as Spinosyn Targets for Insect Pest Management. Adv. Insect Phys. 2013;44:101-210.
Yannuzzi IM, Moretti EA, Nault BA. Comparison of bioassays used to determine onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) susceptibility to spinetoram. J Econ Entomol 2021;114(5):2236-2240.
Morais MC, Rakes M, Padilha AC, Grützmacher AD, Nava DE, Bernardi O, Bernardi D. Susceptibility of Brazilian populations of Anastrepha fraterculus, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), and Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to selected insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol. 2021;114(3):1291–1297.
AGROFIT – Sistema de Agrotóxico Fitossanitário. Accessed 05 November; 2021.
Raga A, Sato, ME. Time-mortality for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to insecticides in laboratory. Arq. Inst. Biol. 2006;73(1):73-77.
Ferreira DF. Sisvar: A Guide for its Bootstrap procedures in multiple comparisons. Ciênc. Agrotec. 2014; 38(2):109-112.
Liu Z, Hu T, Guo HW, Liang XF, Cheng YQ. Ultrastructure of the olfactory sensilla across the antennae and maxillary palps of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Insects 2021; 12: 289.
Cohen H, Voet H. Effect of physiological state of young Ceratitis capitata females, on resource foraging behaviour. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 2002; 104: 345–351.
Robacker DC. Specific hunger in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae): effects on attractiveness of proteinaceous and fruit-derived lures. Environ. Entomol. 1991:20(6):1680–1686.
Yee WL. Evaluation of cyantraniliprole, spinetoram, and Chromobacterium subtsugae extract in bait for killing and reducing oviposition of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae). J Econ Entomol 2020;113(3):1356-1362.
Coronado-Gonzalez PA, Vijaysegaran S, Robinson AS. Functional morphology of the mouthparts of the adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. J. Insect Sci. 2008: 8:73,
Drew RAI, Yuval B. The evolution of fruit fly feeding behavior. Fruit Flies, Phylogeny and Evolution of Behavior. Aluja M; Norrbom A (editors). 2000:731– 749. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Landolt Pj, Reed Hc. Behavior of the Papaya fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): host finding and oviposition. Environ. Entomol. 199);19(5):1305-1310.
Heath RR, Epsky ND, Bloem S, Bloem K, Acajabon F, Guzman A, Chambers D. pH effect on the attractiveness of a corn hydrolysate to the Mediterranean fruit fly and several Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 1994;87(4): 1008-1013.
Raga A, Vieira SMJ. Attractiveness of corn steep liquor plus borax to fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) under field cages. Arq. Inst. Biol. 2015:82:1-8.
Ben-Yosef M, Pasternak Z, Jurkevitch E, Yuval B Symbiotic bacteria enable olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) to exploit intractable sources of nitrogen. J. Evol. Biol. 2014;27:2695–2705.
Vontas J, Hernández-Crespo P, Margaritopoulos JT, Ortego F, Feng HT, Mathiopoulos K D, Hsu, JC. Insecticide resistance in Tephritid flies. Pest Biochem. Phys. 2011;100(3): 199-205.
Uchoa MA. Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea): Biology, host plants, natural enemies, and the implications to their natural control. In: Larramendy LM, Soloneski S, editors. Integrated pest management and pest control: current and future tactics. Rijeka: Intech Open. 2012:271-300.
Abstract View: 61 times
PDF Download: 32 times