Studies on Fungal Spoilage of Stored Zea mays L. (Maize) Grains in Two Markets in Lagos State, Nigeria
Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology,
Maize is one of the most essential staple foods consumed and its spoilage by fungi has been a serious concern to humans since the dawn of agriculture and food storage. Therefore, this research was aimed at isolating, identifying and determining the toxicity level of fungi causing spoilage of stored maize grains. Grain samples of maize were collected from Igando and Alaba markets in (Lagos State) from the top and bottom of maize bags from both market stores. Samples were cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar for fungal isolation. All isolates were identified using morphological and microscopic features. Also, the affordable qualitative method (ammonia vapour test) was carried out in order to identify some selected isolates that are aflatoxigenic. Petri- plates containing these isolates were flipped upside down and 2ml of concentrated ammonia solution (Extra Pure AR grade) was poured into the lid of inverted culture plates and observed for 10-15 minutes inside a desiccator for proper release of ammonia vapour. The genera of fungi isolated were; Aspergillus (57.15%), Fusarium (21.43%), Penicillium (7.14%) and Rhizopus (14.29%). The dominant genus was Aspergillus. The exposure of selected isolates to ammonia vapour led to varying degrees of colour changes which included pink, red and plum red. Similarly, isolates that were moderately poisonous were pink in colour, least poisonous showed red colour and very poisonous isolates indicated plum red colour. The findings from this study indicated that Aspergillus spp. are mostly responsible for spoilage of maize grains in storage and contamination with A. flavus can lead to poison production.
- Aspergillus flavus
- ammonia vapour test
- maize grains
How to Cite
Ahmed B. Economic analysis of fertilizer used in maize production in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Department of Agric. Economics and Rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria: Nigeria; 1996.
Ayeni AO. Maize Production in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects. Journal of Food and Agriculture. 1991;2:123-129.
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture - IITA. Maize; 2018
Hell K, Mutegi C. Aflatoxin control and prevention strategies in key crops of Sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2011;5(5):459-466.
Kossou DK, Aho N. Stockage et Conservation des Grains AlimentairesTropicaux Principles et Pratiques. Les Editions du Flamboyant,Benin. 1993;125.
Shurtleff MC. Compendium of corn diseases, St. Paul: Am. Phytopathol. Soc. 2nd edition ed. 1980;105.
Onilude AA, Wakil SM, Odeniyi AO, Fawole O,Garuba EO, Ja’afaru IM. Distribution of aflatoxin and aflatoxigenic, and other toxigenic fungi in maize samples marketed in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. EJEAFChe. 2012;11(2):148-155.
Kolawole IA, Oluwatosin MA, Tihomir K, Chibundu NE, Aflatoxin contamination of maize vended in Ondo state, Nigeria, and health risk assessment. Croat. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2020;12(1):123-129.
Shekhar M, Singh N, Kumar S, Kiran R. Role of mould occurrence in aflatoxin build-up and variability of Aspergillus flavus isolates from maize grains across India. Qual Assur Saf Crop. 2017;9(2):171–178.
Fawole MO, Oso BA. Laboratory manual of Microbiology. 5th edition. Spectrum Books Ltd, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2009.
Robert AS, Ellen SV. Introduction to Food-Borne Fungi, Third Edition. Netherlands. 1988;66-67.
Saito M, Machida S. A rapid identification method for aflatoxin producing strain of A. Flavus and A. Parasiticusby ammonia vapour. Mycoscience. 1999;40:205-211.
Onyeze RC, Udeh SMC, Akachi BO, Ugwu OPC. Isolation and characterization of fungi associated with the spoilage of corn (Zeamays). Int. J. Pharm. Med. & Bio. Sc. 2013;2(3):86-91.
Amadi JE, Adeniyi DO. Mycotoxin production by fungi isolated from stored grains. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(7):1219-1221.
Egwurochi WI, Nwosuocha GC, Olugbue VC, Uchendu D, Anyaegbunam BC.Isolation and identification of fungal association with stored maize grain in afikpo. The Melting Pot. 2018;1,1
Baiyewu RA, Amusa NA, Ayoola OA, Babalola OO. Survey of the post-harvest diseases and aflatoxin contamination of marketed pawpaw fruits (Carica papaya L) in south western Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Science. 2007;2(4):178-181.
Hussein HS, BraselJM.Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. Toxicology. 2001; 167:101-134.
Al-Hindi RR, Al-Najada AR, Mohamed SA. Isolation and Identification of some fruit spoilage fungi: Screening of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2011;5(4):443-448.
Ciegler A, Bennett JW. Mycotoxins and mycotoxicoses. Bioscience.1980;30(8):512-515.
Monso EM. Occupational asthma in greenhouse workers. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 2004;10:147-150.
Abstract View: 122 times
PDF Download: 41 times