Determination of Zinc Concentration and Nutritional Value of Cow Hide (Ponmo) Sold in Different Parts of the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria
Issue: 2023 - Volume 26 [Issue 9]
Ogunlade-Anibasa, G. O. *
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, Nigeria.
Ogwuiche, P. O.
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, Nigeria.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Investigation of heavy metals (Zinc) concentration and nutritional value of cow hides (ponmo) consumed in AMAC (Abuja Municipal and Kuje Area Councils was carried out between November 2021 and January 2022. Samples were randomly collected from both Area Councils and prepared for Analysis using Nitric acid digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The mean concentration of Zinc (Zn) in AMAC were 0.88 ± 0.35mg/kg and 2.04 ± 0.57mg/kg in Kuje Area Council respectively. Results showed that the concentration of Zinc (Zn) in cow hide (Ponmo) from AMAC was two times as high as cow hide (Ponmo) from Kuje Area Council. The mean concentration of Zinc (Zn) in cow hide in both Area Councils were two times as high as the Food and Agricultural Organization Standard unit for Zinc(Zn), which is 0.03mg/kg -1.0mg/kg. However, potential accumulation may depend on the frequency of consumption or exposure. In contrast to many studies the samples had alot of nutritional value. Proximate analysis showed that the ponmo samples for Kuje had 54% proteinand 34.68% carbohydrate, moisture 5.3%, crude lipid 2.3%, ash 2.7%, fibre 0.82% while ponmo samples for AMAC had 51.4% protein, 36% carbohydrate, 5% moisture, crude lipid 4.3%, ash 2.1% and fibre 1.1% which suggests that Ponmo has some level of nutrient especially rich in protein and carbohydrate and low in fibre content. Cowhides from AMAC and Kuje Area Councils contain significant amount of zinc, which exceeded the standard limit and could pose a potential health risk to consumers depending on the frequency of consumption. Hence the need for monitoring of this metal concentration to avoid excessive bioaccumulation that could be harmful to health. This study also showed that cowhides is rich in some nutrients especially protein and carbohydrates and can be a substitute for meat protein.
Keywords: Cowhide, zinc, proximate, nutritional value, concentration
How to Cite
Adimula VO, Ilupejo O, Onianwa PC, Ayom GE, Alafara BA. Assessment of heavy metals in foods and adult dietary intake estimates. African Journal of Science Technology Innovation and Development; 2019.
Beckett WS, Nordberg GF, Clarkson TW. Routes of Exposure, Dose, and Metabolism of Metals. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, edited by GF Nordberg, BA Fowler, M. Nordberg, Friberg LT. Copenhagen: Academy Press Inc. 2007:35-39.
Agbogidi OM. Trace metal profile of some fruits in Kokori and Abraka Market, Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Scholarly Research Gate. 2014;2(1).
Athar M, Vohora SB. Heavy Metals and Environment. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited. 2001;2.
Fergusson JE. The Heavy Elements: Chemistry, Environmental Impact and Health Effects. Oxford: Pergamon Press; 1990.
Duffus JH. Heavy metals-a meaningless term?.Pure Applied Chemistry. 2002;74(5): 793–807.
Kamran S, Ali S, Hameed S, Afzal S, Samar F, Muhammad BS, Bharwana SA, Hafiz MT. Heavy Metals Contamination and what are the Impacts on Living Organisms. Greener Journal of Environmental Management and Public Safety. 2013;2(4):172-179
Ahmed ATA, Mandal S, Chowdhury DA, Tareq ARM, Rahman MM. Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in Ayre Fish (SperataAor Hamilton, 1822), sediment and water of Dhaleshwari River in dry season. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology. 2012;40(1):147-153
Hezbullah M, Sultana S, Chakraborty S, Patwary Md. Heavy metal contamination of food in a developing country like Bangladesh: An emerging threat to food safety. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. 2016;8(1-5):10-589.
Okiei W, Ogunlesi M, Alabi F,Osiughwu B, Sojinrin A. Determination of toxic metal concentrations in flame treated meat products, ponmo. African Journal of Biochemical Research. 2009;3(10):332–339.
Dada EO, Osilagun HO, Njoku LK. Physicochemical and Genotoxic Evaluations of Singed Cowhide Meat (Ponmo) Wastewater. Article in Journal of Health and Pollution; 2018.
Kalu E, Nwanta J, Anaga A. Determination of the presence and concentration of heavy metal in cattle hides singed in Nsukka abattoir. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2015;7:9-17. 10.5897.
Bhowmik D, Chiranjib KP, Kumar KPS. A potential medicinal importance of zinc in human health and chronic disease. International Journal Pharmaceutical Biomedical Science. 2010;1(1):05–11.
Emami MH, Saberi F, Mohammadzadeh S, Abdolvand AFM, Dehkordi SAE, Mohammadzadeh S, Maghool. A Review of Heavy Metals Accumulation in Red Meat and Meat Products in the Middle East, Journal of Food Protection. 2023;86(3): 100048, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfp.2023.100048
WHO. World Health Organization. Switzerland: Geneva; Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health; 1996.
Tyagi OD, Mehra M. Environmental Chemistry. Anmol Publications, New Dehli. 1992;109–288.
Salem HM, Eweida EA, Farag A. Heavy metals in drinking water and their environmental impact on human health. The International Conference for Environmental Hazard Mitigation (ICEHM); Cairo University, Egypt. 2000:542–556.
Morshdy MA, l Bayomi AE , Khalifa ME, R M Salah S, M El-Dien W, Darwish W, Fikry A, Mahmoud A. Heavy Metal Content in Chicken Meat Products: A Health Risk Assessment Study. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research, 2022;12(4):451-455. Avialable:https://www.advetresearch.com/index.php/AVR/article/view/1061
Lukáčová A, Golian J, Massanyi P, Formicki G. Lead concentration in meat and meat product of Different Origin. Potravinarstvo Slovak Scientific Journal for Food Industry. 2014;8(1):43-47.
Ubwa ST, Ejiga R, Okoye PAC, Amua QM. Assessment of heavy metals in the blood and some selected entrails of cattle, goat, pig slaughtered at Wurukum Abattoir, Makurdi˗Nigeria. Advances in analytical chemistry, 2017;7(1):7˗12.
DOI:10.5923 ̸j.aac. 20.70701.02.
Salim SA, Sarraf ov N, Dana Z, Hashami Z, Afrah A, Sadeghi E, Bashiry M. A comprehensive image of environmental toxic heavy metals in red meat: A global systematic review and meta-analysis and risk assessment study, Science of The Total Environment. 2023;889164100. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.164100.
Baykov BD, Stoyanov MP, Gugova ML. Cadmium and Lead bioaccumulation in male chickens for high food concentrations. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. 1996;54(1-4): 155- 159.
Santhi D, Balakrishnan V, Kalaikannan A, Radhakrishnan KT. Presence of heavy metals in pork products in Chennai (India). American Journal of Food and Technology. 2008;3(3):192-199.
Aschner M. Neurotoxic mechanism of fishbonemethylmetry. EnviromentalToxic Pharmacology. 2002;12:101-102.
Agah AL, Mepba HD, Ekpo MB. Heavy metal contaminants and processing effects on the composition, storage stability and fatty acid profiles of five common commercially available fish species in Oron Local Government, Nigeria. Food Chemicals. 2009;97:490-497.
Obiri-Danso K, Hogarh JN, Antwi-Agyei P. Assessment of contamination of singed hides from cattle and goats by heavy metals in Ghana. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2008;2(8): 217-221.
Wikipedia. Lead; 2021. Available:https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead
Akwetey, Worlah, WY, Eremong, CD, Donkoh, Armstrong. Chemical and nutrient composition of cattle hide ("welle" using different processing methods. Journal of Animal Science Advances. 2013;3:176-180.
Pomeranz Y, Meloan CE. Food analysis. Food science text series. 1994:287.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Manual of the slaughter of small ruminants in developing countries: Section on slaughtering practices and techniques. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper. 2011;49.
Essumang DK, Dodoo DK , Adokoh KC, Koka V, Nkrumah BN , Nuer ACD. Heavy metal levels in singed cattle hide (wele) and its human health implications. Proceedings – The First International Conference on Environmental Research, Technology and Policy, ERTEP 2007, Accra, Ghana. Book of Abstracts. 2007:19.
Satarug S, Garrett SH, Sens MA, Sens D. A. Cadmium, environmental exposure, and health outcomes. Ciência&SaúdeColetiva; 2011;16(5):2587–2602.