Effect of Different Salinity Levels on Morphological and Yield-Related Traits of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)


Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, COB, SVPUAT, Meerut, U.P., India.

Vaishali *

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, COB, SVPUAT, Meerut, U.P., India.

Yadav M. K.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, COB, SVPUAT, Meerut, U.P., India.

Kumar P.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, COB, SVPUAT, Meerut, U.P., India.

Gangwar L. K.

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, COA, SVPUAT, Meerut, U.P., India.

Sharma A. K.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, COB, SVPUAT, Meerut, U.P., India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Salinity stress arises from the accumulation of elevated salt levels in the soil, leading to the hindrance of plant growth and eventual crop loss. Compounds that induce stress tolerance exhibit a remarkable capacity to enhance growth and mitigate the impacts of salinity stress, all while maintaining a positive environmental impact by regulating plant activities. to investigate how varying levels of salinity in the irrigation water impact the morphological characteristics and yield of tomato plants. The experiment employed a complete randomized design with one plant per pot and three replicates per treatment, spanning from October 2021 to April 2022 and October 2022 to April 2023 at SVPUAT, Meerut. The objective was to investigate the impact of four NaCl levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM) on the Morphological traits of ten tomato cultivars (Arka Rakshak, Punjab Ratta, H-88-78-5, VRT-16-1, Pusa Ruby, Pant T-3, Arka Samrat, Kashi Aman, Kashi Anupam, Pusa Rohini) during the mature stage. Various genotypes displayed distinct reactions concerning plant growth, with a focus on factors such as plant height, the quantity of branches per plant, the number of flower trusses per plant, and the number of flowers per truss being examined. Parameters such as average fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, and TSS were also measured. The findings revealed that increasing NaCl salinity adversely affected the morphological properties of all examined tomato plants compared to the control group (tap water). Salinity was found to decrease morpho and yield related parameters, except for TSS in tomato fruit. Nevertheless, there was a variation in the response to salt stress among the studied varieties. "Pusa Ruby" and "Pusa Rohini" demonstrated greater performance and stability under salinity stress, followed by Arka Rakshak and Kashi Aman, while Punjab Ratta, followed by Pant T-3, inferior performance under salinity. Water salinity significantly impacts the growth and production of crops, and the insights from this study can aid in the selection of better varieties in saline-affected areas. However, it is essential to further evaluate the potential of these genotypes under saline conditions and assess the variability in various biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Salinity stress, plant growth, crop loss, NaCl levels, tomato

How to Cite

Swati, Vaishali, Yadav M. K., Kumar P., Gangwar L. K., & Sharma A. K. (2024). Effect of Different Salinity Levels on Morphological and Yield-Related Traits of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, 27(1), 174–190. https://doi.org/10.9734/jabb/2024/v27i1690


Download data is not yet available.


Hasan MN, Hasan MM, Haque MZ, Howlader MH, Shanta UK. Adaptibility of tomato genotypes suitable for coastal region of Patuakhali in Bangladesh. Progressive Agriculture. 2017;28(2):84-91.

Salim MM, Rashid MH, Hossain MM, Zakaria M. Morphological characterization of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 2020;19(3):233-40.

Jin JF, Wang ZQ, He QY, Wang JY, Li PF, Xu JM, Zheng SJ, Fan W, Yang JL. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the NAC transcription factor family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) during aluminum stress. BMC genomics. 2020;21:1-4.

Bacha H, Tekaya M, Drine S, Guasmi F, Touil L, Enneb H, Triki T, Cheour F, Ferchichi A. Impact of salt stress on morpho-physiological and biochemical parameters of Solanum lycopersicum cv. Microtom leaves. South African Journal of Botany. 2017;108:364-9.

Richards LA, editor. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. US Government Printing Office; 1954.

Gama PB, Inanaga S, Tanaka K, Nakazawa R. Physiological response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings to salinity stress. African Journal of biotechnology. 2007;6(2).

Babu MA, Singh D, Gothandam KM. The effect of salinity on growth, hormones and mineral elements in leaf and fruit of tomato cultivar PKM1. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2012;22(1):159-64.

Hussain S, Shaukat M, Ashraf M, Zhu C, Jin Q, Zhang J. Salinity stress in arid and semi-arid climates: Effects and management in field crops. Climate change and agriculture. 2019; 13:201-26.

Guo M, Wang XS, Guo HD, Bai SY, Khan A, Wang XM, Gao YM, Li JS. Tomato salt tolerance mechanisms and their potential applications for fighting salinity: A review. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2022; 13:949541.

Ali HE, Ismail GS. Tomato fruit quality as influenced by salinity and nitric oxide. Turkish Journal of Botany. 2014;38(1):122-9.

Ismail MR, Burrage SW. Effects of salinity on growth, water relations and photosynthetic rate of tomatoes grown in nutrient film technique. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science. 1994; 17:73-9.

Umar J, Aliyu A, Shehu KK, Abubakar L. A study on effects of salinity on growth and yield of tomato genotype (Solanum lycopersicum). Sustainable Food Production. 2018;3:16-24.

Foolad MR. Recent advances in genetics of salt tolerance in tomato. Plant Cell, tissue and organ culture. 2004; 76:101-19.

Negrao S, Schmöckel SM, Tester MJ. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress. Annals of botany. 2017;119(1):1-1.

Khursheda P, Ahamed KU, Islam MM, Haque MN. Response of tomato plant under salt stress: role of exogenous calcium. Journal of Plant Sciences. 2015; 10(6):222-33.

Uddin MN, Islam MT, Karim MA. Salinity tolerance of three mustard/rapeseed cuitivars. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University. 2005;3(452-2018-3826):203-8.

Mortazainezhad F. Study of some parameters of yield and proline in rice plants under NaCI salinity stress. Journal of New Agricultural Science.2006;2:93-98.

Chookhampaeng S, Pattanagul W, Theerakulpisut P. Effects of salinity on growth, activity of antioxidant enzymes and sucrose content in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) at the reproductive stage. Sci. Asia. 2008;34: 69-75.

Munns R, Tester M. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 2008; 59:651-81.

Flowers TJ, Colmer TD. Salinity tolerance in halophytes. New phytologist. 2008 Sep 1:945-63.

Zhang P, Senge M, Dai Y. Effects of salinity stress at different growth stages on tomato growth, yield, and water-use efficiency. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 2017; 48(6):624-34.

Leiva-Ampuero A, Agurto M, Matus JT, Hoppe G, Huidobro C, Inostroza-Blancheteau C, Reyes-Díaz M, Stange C, Canessa P, Vega A. Salinity impairs photosynthetic capacity and enhances carotenoid-related gene expression and biosynthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom). PeerJ. 2020 ;8: e9742.

Cuartero J, Fernández-Muñoz R. Tomato and salinity. Scientia horticulturae. 1998 Nov 30;78(1-4):83-125.

Amini F, Ehsanpour AA, Hoang QT, Shin JS. Protein pattern changes in tomato under in vitro salt stress. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 2007; 54:464-71.

Gumi AM, Aliero AA, Shehu K, Danbaba A. Salinity stress: Effects on growth, biochemical parameters and ion homeostasis in Solanum lycospersicum L (cv. Dan eka). Central European Journal of Experimental Biology. 2013;2(3):20-5.

Giannakoula AE, Ilias IF. The effect of water stress and salinity on growth and physiology of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mil.). Archives of Biological Sciences. 2013;65(2):611-20.

De Pascale S, Orsini F, Caputo R, Palermo MA, Barbieri G, Maggio A. Seasonal and multiannual effects of salinisation on tomato yield and fruit quality. Functional Plant Biology. 2012; 39(8):689-98.

Kpinkoun JK, Amoussa AM, Mensah AC, Komlan FA, Kinsou E, Lagnika L, Gandonou CB. Effect of salt stress on flowering, fructification and fruit nutrients concentration in a local cultivar of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2019;11(1):1-7.

Zhang P, Senge M, Dai Y. Effects of salinity stress on growth, yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency of tomato under hydroponics system. Reviews in Agricultural Science. 2016;4:46-55.

Latif HH, Mohamed HI. Exogenous applications of moringa leaf extract effect on retrotransposon, ultrastructural and biochemical contents of common bean plants under environmental stresses. South African journal of botany. 2016; 106:221-31.

Saito T, Fukuda N, Matsukura C, Nishimura S. Effects of salinity on distribution of photosynthates and carbohydrate metabolism in tomato grown using nutrient film technique. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science. 2009;78(1):90-6.

Akladious SA, Mohamed HI. Ameliorative effects of calcium nitrate and humic acid on the growth, yield component and biochemical attribute of pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants grown under salt stress. Scientia Horticulturae. 2018; 236:244-50.

Sakamoto Y, Watanabe S, Nakashima T, Okano K. Effects of salinity at two ripening stages on the fruit quality of single-truss tomato grown in hydroponics. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 1999 Jan 1;74(6):690-3.

Parvin K, Ahamed KU, Islam MM, Haque MN, Hore PK, Siddik MA, Roy I. Reproductive behavior of tomato plant under saline condition with exogenous application of calcium. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research. 2015; 23:2920-6.

Magan JJ, Gallardo M, Thompson RB, Lorenzo P. Effects of salinity on fruit yield and quality of tomato grown in soil-less culture in greenhouses in Mediterranean climatic conditions. Agricultural water management. 2008; 95(9):1041-55.

Cuartero J, Fernandez-Muñoz R. Tomato and salinity. Scientia horticulturae. 1998; 78(1-4):83-125.

Beckles DM. Factors affecting the postharvest soluble solids and sugar content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 2012; 63(1):129-40.

Habibi N, Sediqui N, Terada N, Sanada NT, Koshio K. Effects of salinity on growth, physiological and biochemical responses of tomato. Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. 2021;27(2):14-28.

Johkan M, Nagatsuka A, Yoshitomi A, Nakagawa T, Maruo T, Tsukagoshi S, Hohjo MA, Lu N, Nakaminami A, Tsuchiya K, Shinohara Y. Effect of moderate salinity stress on the sugar concentration and fruit yield in single-truss, high-density tomato production system. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science. 2014;83(3):229-34.

Lu S, Li T, Jiang J. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit development. African journal of Biotechnology. 2010;9(6):842-9.

Carvajal M, Cerda A, Martinez V. Modification of the response of saline stressed tomato plants by the correction of cation disorders. Plant Growth Regulation. 2000; 30(1):37-47.