Impact of Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil and Crop Ecosystem with Advanced Techniques to Mitigate Them

Hridesh Harsha Sarma *

Department of Agronomy, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785013, Assam, India.

Arnab Rajkumar

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Orissa University of Agriculture and technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, India.

Ankita Baro

Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785013, Assam, India.

Bikash Chandra Das

Department of Extension Education, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785013, Assam, India.

Nilabh Talukdar

Department of Agronomy, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785013, Assam, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Heavy metal pollution in soils has become widespread globally due to both natural processes and human activities. Geologic and anthropogenic activities, such as mining, industrial processes, and agricultural practices, significantly contribute to heavy metal accumulation in soil, posing threats to both plant and animal health. These metals endure in the environment and build up in organisms because they resist breakdown or metabolism. They enter the food chain via primary producers and move up as higher trophic levels consume them. This contamination adversely affects the overall human health, plant growth, performance, and yield and also impacts the soil properties. To minimize this effect of heavy metal toxicity, bioremediation emerges as a highly effective method for treating such polluted soils, often conducted in situ, making it suitable for crop establishment or reestablishment. Bioremediation encompasses various techniques like bioventing, biostimulation, air sparging, natural attenuation, phytoremediation, vermistabilization, rhizofiltration, biosorption etc. Both microorganisms and plants play crucial roles in bioremediation, with the combined approach ensuring more efficient cleanup. However, the success of this method depends significantly on the specific species involved. Traditional physical and chemical remediation methods are often costly and fail to restore soil suitability for plant growth. In contrast, bioremediation offers a more environmentally friendly and economically viable solution, leveraging natural processes to encourage plant growth on contaminated soils.

Keywords: Bioremediation, biostimulation, environment, heavy metals, phytoremediation


How to Cite

Sarma , H. H., Rajkumar , A., Baro, A., Das, B. C., & Talukdar, N. (2024). Impact of Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil and Crop Ecosystem with Advanced Techniques to Mitigate Them. Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, 27(6), 53–63. https://doi.org/10.9734/jabb/2024/v27i6865

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