Integrating Omics Approaches for Climate-Resilient Crops: A Comprehensive Review

Anusha M R

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab-144002, India.

Mohammad Amir *

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab-144002, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Climate change is a looming threat to global agriculture, impacting temperature, rainfall patterns, pest dynamics, and soil quality. These challenges transcend numerous crops vital for global food security. Drought, soil acidity, and nutrient fluctuations induced by climate change impede crop productivity, necessitating the development of breeding strategies to produce climate-resilient varieties. This review delves into the integration of omics approaches, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, to bolster breeding programs across diverse crops. By harnessing high-throughput technologies, researchers gain insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying traits such as stress resistance, yield, and disease tolerance. The cultivation of elite cultivars with enhanced stress tolerance is paramount for sustainable agriculture in the face of climate change. Various breeding approaches, encompassing functional genomics and mutagenomics, are explored alongside the application of genome editing tools like CRISPR/Cas9 and TALEN for targeted trait enhancement. Through the integration of multi-omics data, novel genetic targets are unearthed, facilitating the development of crop varieties resilient to climate-induced stressors beyond maize. This review underscores the significance of multi-omics in crop breeding and highlights strides made toward climate-resilient crop production. Understanding crop responses to abiotic stresses induced by climate change is imperative for the development of resilient varieties. The integration of modern genetics into classical breeding methods aims to cultivate stress-resistant cultivars, mitigating food security risks. Multi-omics approaches play pivotal roles in unraveling crop performance and stress tolerance mechanisms under diverse environmental conditions. Moving forward, the integration of multi-omics approaches will pinpoint candidate genes and pathways, enabling precision breeding to enhance crop performance amidst changing climates. These endeavors will propel the advancement of climate-resilient crops, safeguarding global food security in the face of climate change's challenges.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9, TALEN, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics


How to Cite

Anusha M R, & Amir, M. (2024). Integrating Omics Approaches for Climate-Resilient Crops: A Comprehensive Review. Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, 27(6), 351–363. https://doi.org/10.9734/jabb/2024/v27i6895

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