Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology 2022-08-13T04:23:17+00:00 Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Journal of Advances in Biology &amp; Biotechnology (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1081)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JABB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Biology &amp; Biotechnology’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p>This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> Salmonella Infection, Isolation and Antimicrobial Resistance in Diarrhoeic Dogs Presenting to Clinics in Northwestern Nigeria 2022-08-02T04:42:48+00:00 N. N. Pilau <p><em>Salmonella</em> is one of the most common food-borne bacteria incriminated in gastroenteritis in dogs. The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) genes raises spectre of intractable disease and constitute significant public health risk. Already, there are various reports of resistance to several antimicrobials by <em>Salmonella</em> isolates from canine patients. This study was therefore conceived to investigate for the first time in the studied region, <em>Salmonella</em> isolates circulating in canine population in Sokoto State, northwestern Nigeria. Presenting canine out-patients and those admitted for emergencies with overt clinical signs for salmonellosis were recruited for the study. <em>Salmonella</em> was isolated from blood and faecal samples using standard laboratory techniques as required by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The Gram stain, <em>Salmonella-Shigella </em>agar (SS agar), Brilliant Green <em>Salmonella</em> agar (BGSA) and finally the xylose lysine deoxycholate agar (XLD) at specified temperatures and carbon dioxide adjustments were all applied on samples to isolate <em>Salmonella</em> as pure culture. The Kirby Bauer Disk diffusion method was used to test for antimicrobial resistance. Overall, a prevalence of 19.7% was recorded with pyrexia (18.5%) and diarrhea (13.7%) showing statistically significant (P&lt;0.05) non-random association with <em>Salmonella</em> isolation in patients. The puppy age groups (from day one to five months) recorded prevalence of 31(21.2%) followed by middle-age dogs (6-months to a year) recording prevalence of 24(22.2%). Male dogs presented preponderance of cases compared to the females with prevalence of 48(76.1%). The Nigerian local dog was the highest in the number of cases with a statistically significant (P&lt;0.05) prevalence of 23(36.5%), the German shepherd recorded isolation rate of 19(30.2%) that was also statistically significant (P&lt;0.05). Various antimicrobials used recorded varying degree of resistance patterns when tested with isolates. A total of 19 isolates accounting for 43.2% were resistant to tetracycline, 15(35.7%) isolates recorded resistance for ceftriaxone, 13 isolates accounting for 38.2% presented resistance for metronidazole and 11(27.5%) recorded resistance for amoxicillin. Conversely, isolates were 100% susceptible to chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole. It is imperative for small animal clinicians, diagnosticians, researchers and public health policy makers to have credible time-tested data on resistance status of <em>Salmonella </em>isolates in dogs, as this is a roadmap to a healthy canine and human population.</p> 2022-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Environmental Impacts of Agbara Abattoir Waste on the Ecosystem of Ologe Lagoon, Nigeria 2022-08-13T04:23:17+00:00 T. Y. Jimoh A. A. Olayeri T. E. Falebita G. A. Reis B. I. Olufowobi A. O. Saba B. P. Akinbode O. T. Olorunfemi P. N. Nwabuisi <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This research was conducted to investigate the effects of Agbara abattoir wastes dumped into the Ologe lagoon.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted at Ologe lagoon in Lagos, Nigeria from September 2019 - December 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Water samples from the lagoon were collected monthly from three sites in the lagoon for four months. 30m before the entry site, the entry site of the abattoir wastes, and 30m after the entry site. After collection, the samples were analyzed for 13 parameters following the guidelines of the American Public Health Association (APHA).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result showed that the conductivity ranged between 80.94 to 139.93 (µS/cm). The pH ranged between 7.84 to 9.23. The total dissolved solids ranged between 44.00 to 110.24(mg/l). The total suspended solids ranged between 20.12 to 70.82 (mg/l). The ammonia ranged from&nbsp; 0.01 to 0.04 (mg/l). The biological oxygen demand ranged from 50.72 to 107.41 (mg/l). The chemical oxygen demand ranged from 202.94 to 497.17 (mg/l). The chromium ranged from 0.04 to 0.06 (mg/l). The coliform level ranged from 33.62 to 82.50 (cfu/100ml). The <em>Escherichia coli </em>ranged from 1.20 to 3.30 (cfu/ml). The nitrate ranged from 2.74 to 4.55 (mg/l). The nitrite ranged from 0.22 to 0.69 (mg/l). The phosphate ranged from 6.89 to 11.33 (mg/l).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This research showed that the ologe lagoon is polluted and unfit for human consumption and aquatic life. Therefore measures should be put in place to ensure proper disposal of the abattoir wastes in other to increase the quality of the lagoon.</p> 2022-08-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##