Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology https://journaljabb.com/index.php/JABB <p><strong>Journal of Advances in Biology &amp; Biotechnology (ISSN: 2394-1081)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="https://journaljabb.com/index.php/JABB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Biology &amp; Biotechnology’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology 2394-1081 Investigating the Association of Traits Influencing Yield and Micronutrient Content in F2 Generation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) https://journaljabb.com/index.php/JABB/article/view/694 <p>Wheat is a key food crop for the world, providing a lot of the energy we need. It gives us about 55% of our carbohydrates and 20% of our calories. Many people eat cereal grains as their main food, but they often lack enough nutrients. This causes malnutrition, which is also called “hidden hunger”. Micronutrient malnutrition arising from Zn and Fe deficiency has emerged as a serious health concern and it afflicts over 3 billion people globally. Zinc and Iron are very important for our health. Bio-fortification circumvents the hidden hunger by improving the micronutrient composition of food grains by either increasing its concentration in edible portions or enhancing its bio-availability. The present investigation was an attempt to decipher the association among traits and their contribution towards yield by correlation and path analysis. Findings showed that the number of grains in each spike and the amount of chlorophyll in the plants were strongly related to how much grain each plant produced in both F2 groups (Rajendra Genhu 4 × HD2967 and Rajendra Genhu 3 × HD2967). On the other hand, grain iron content was inversely related to the yield. The path analysis of both crosses showed that factors like plant height, days to 50 % flowering, days to maturity and chlorophyll content had a positive direct impact on the yield. However, the zinc and iron levels in the grain had a negative direct impact on the yield. These results inferred that number of grains per spike and chlorophyll content could be used in indirect selection for yield improvement.</p> Jai Prakash Prasad Satish Kumar Singh Nilanjaya Nirmalaruban R. Copyright (c) 2024 Prasad et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-13 2024-02-13 27 2 1 8 10.9734/jabb/2024/v27i2694 In vitro Inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani Radial Growth by Native Mycoflora: Implications for Root Rot Disease in Chili https://journaljabb.com/index.php/JABB/article/view/695 <p>In the course of the study, native bioagents isolated from the rhizosphere of the chili crop were used to manage the soil-borne pathogens <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em>. The study was conducted in the laboratory of the Department of Plant Pathology and Nematology, RPCAU, Pusa, Bihar in the year 2020-23. The soil microflora (fungal and bacterial) was isolated from the rhizosphere of Chili and screened <em>in vitro</em> by evaluating their antagonistic potential against <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em>, and resultantly two fungal and two bacterial isolates were found most effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of the pathogen over control. The maximum percent inhibition was recorded in the case of <em>Trichod</em>erma harzianum (71.98%) followed by <em>Trichod</em>erma <em>viride</em> (62.54%) and among the bacterial isolates maximum inhibition was recorded in the case of RB1 that inhibit (69.38%), followed by RB6 (66.42%). Overall, these findings suggest that the combination of <em>Trichoderma</em> and <em>Bacteria </em>could be an effective and sustainable method for reducing the radial growth of <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> causing Root rot disease in chilli.<em> Rhizoctonia solani</em> was established as a causal organism of chili. The use of Bio-control agents is an eco-friendly approach and a good option to manage soil borne phyto-pathogens. These biological control agents either use the mechanism of antibiosis or mycoparasitism against the fungal pathogen. Evaluation of <em>Trichoderma </em>spp. and Bacterial isolates against <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> showed that significantly reduced the mycelial growth of <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em><em> in vitro</em>.</p> Anupam Kumari P. K. Jha Anamita Sen Copyright (c) 2024 Kumari et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-16 2024-02-16 27 2 9 14 10.9734/jabb/2024/v27i2695 Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activities of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Extract in Streptozocin Induced Diabetic Rats https://journaljabb.com/index.php/JABB/article/view/696 <p>The present study was designed to evaluate the role of Coriander (<em>Coriandrum sativum</em>) for management of diabetes instead of manufactured drugs, which led to many complications. Medicinal plants would be higher useful for this purpose because they are considered to be effective and non-toxic and safer than manufactured drugs. Aqueous extract of Coriander (<em>C. sativum</em>) was used to measurements their antidiabetic and hepatoprotective effects in streptozocin (STZ) induced diabetic male albino rats. Coriander (<em>C. sativum</em>) was given to the STZ induced diabetic rats at the concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight in different groups of three diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Body weight showed significant increase after 15 days of treatment with Coriander (<em>C. sativum</em>) extract compared with the normal control rats group (N). Blood glucose level on 15th day of treatment became significantly lower. The extract induced significant reduction in serum glucose, total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides level and transaminases (AST, ALT and γ-GT) activities. Liver glycogen content was significantly increased in treated animals compared to control group (N). The present data revealed insignificant changes in the serum total protein, albumin and globulin level during the experimental period. The lipid peroxidation determined was found to be decreased in plasma, liver and kidney of streptozocin induced diabetic rats treated with Coriander (<em>C. sativum</em>) extract (STZ/T) and rats group given Coriander (<em>C. sativum</em>) extract and then induced streptozocin (T/STZ), compared to control streptozocin induced diabetic rats group (STZ©). Glutathione reductase (GSH-R), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in liver and kidney of rat groups. These findings demonstrates that Coriander (<em>C. sativum</em>) extract have antioxidant effect for reducing lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues and improve the liver function and antioxidant enzymes in treated rat groups compared to diabetic control rat group (STZ©). These observations revealed that the use of Coriander (<em>C. sativum</em>) extract can be recommended as natural antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity agent. Findings of the present study suggest that the aqueous extract of Coriander (<em>C. sativum</em>) at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight brings about significant beneficial effects in various biochemical parameters during diabetic and these effects are quite comparable with standard drug used to treat diabetes mellitus.</p> Sorial A. Moharib Remon S. Adly Copyright (c) 2024 Moharib and Adly; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 27 2 15 38 10.9734/jabb/2024/v27i2696 Enhancing Maize Seed Vigour through Seed Biopriming Using Bioagents https://journaljabb.com/index.php/JABB/article/view/698 <p>Maize stands as a crucial cereal crop on a global scale, encountering up to 112 diseases, with over 70 being seed-borne. Use of bioagents not only safeguards the environment but also enhances the cost-effectiveness of production initiatives and addresses concerns related to pesticide residue. Maize plants are vulnerable to a range of diseases that significantly diminish both crop yield and quality. One prominent disease is banded leaf and sheath blight, caused by the highly prevalent and destructive pathogen <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> f. sp. <em>sasakii</em>. In present study, the seed treatments with bacterial and fungal bio- agents on maize seed (variety DOP-339). The seed quality parameters were recorded by multi-pots tray method. Seed priming with bacterial bio-agent <em>ie</em>.<em> Pseudomonas sihuinsis</em> (96 %), <em>Bacillus </em><em>aerophilus </em>(94.67 %), <em>Pseudomonas stutzeri</em> (94.33 %) and <em>Enterobacter cloacae </em>(94 %) significantly increased seed germination over control (92.67 %).<em> Pseudomonas sihuinsis </em>showed the highest shoot length (11.84 cm), root length (8.78 cm) and vigour index (854.72). Similarly, seed biopriming with fungal bio-agents with <em>Trichoderma harzianum </em>(96.75 %) and <em>Trichoderma afroharzianum</em> (97.50 %) were at par with each other in seed germination over control (93.25 %). <em>T. harzianum</em> showed highest root length (9.02 cm), fresh weight (15.77 g) and seedling vigour index (883.81) followed by <em>T. afroharzianum</em>. <em>T. afroharzianum</em> showed highest shoot length (12.29 cm) followed by <em>T. harzianum</em> (11.12 cm). while both were at par with each other in dry weight. <em>Nigrospora sphaerica </em>2A, <em>N. sphaerica</em> 7D and <em>N. zimmermanii</em> 8C also displayed positive effects on various parameters as compared to control.</p> Chidanandappa. E. Singh, R. P. Copyright (c) 2024 Chidanandappa and Singh; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 27 2 48 56 10.9734/jabb/2024/v27i2698 Immunomodulating Potential of Ekebergia capensis in Murine Schistosoma mansoni Juvenile and Adult Infection https://journaljabb.com/index.php/JABB/article/view/700 <p>Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease occurring in sub-Saharan Africa and affecting almost 250 million people. The drug of choice for treatment for Schistosomiasis has been Praziquantel which has been used for many years and there is a need to develop new drugs. The immunomodulatory potential of <em>Ekebergia capensis</em> extract on both juvenile and adult <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em> infection in vivo was evaluated in this study. Swiss albino mice were infected individually with 90 <em>S. mansoni </em>cercariae and randomized into groups of five each for i) plant extract treated groups ii) positive control groups treated with conventional drugs PZQ or artemether iii) infected but untreated (negative control) groups. The mice were treated orally with aqueous extracts of <em>E. capensis</em> at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg at 2 weeks (juvenile worms) and 7 weeks (adult worms) post-infection. Immune immune-enhancing potential of the medicinal plant was determined by analyzing the levels of cytokines in serum samples that were collected before and after treatment. A BD-Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) mouse Th1/Th2/Th17 kit was used to quantitate the levels of cytokines using a flow cytometer (FACS Calibur) and analysis of the data was done using FCAP software. Results indicated that the medicinal plant extract had an immunomodulatory effect. There was a significant increase (P&lt;0.05) in Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN- γ and TNF-α), a decrease in Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and an increase in Th17 (IL-17). These findings confirm the potential use of medicinal plants in the management of schistosomiasis.</p> Rael Musili Japheth Lusweti Nancy Kinyatta Joseph Thiong’o Antony Menaine Copyright (c) 2024 Musili et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 27 2 67 78 10.9734/jabb/2024/v27i2700 Analysis of Yield Stability in Diverse Rice Genotypes https://journaljabb.com/index.php/JABB/article/view/701 <p><strong>Aims/ objectives:</strong> This study aims to improve stable and sustainable rice varieties adaptable to changing climatic conditions. It involves assessing genetic variability and Genotype X Environment interaction (G x E) among 186 diverse rice genotypes. The goal is to select genotypes with high breeding value, contributing to the development of rice varieties well-suited to varying climatic conditions.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study employed an augmented design in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Swarna, Madhuraj-55, Safri-17, Improved Samba Mahsuri, Thavalkannan, and IR64 checks were replicated across environments.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study took place in College of Agriculture, Raipur, IGKV over two years (wet season-2020 and 2021).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Analysis of genetic variability and G X E interaction among 186 rice genotypes. Execution of the experiment in an augmented design with a randomized complete block design. Replication of standard rice checks across different environments. Assessment of yield-attributing traits such as plant height, number of effective tillers, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, biological yield per plot, and grain yield. Evaluation of stability was done using univariate (Shukla stability variance, Wricke’s ecovalence, Kang stability statistic) and multivariate (AMMI yield stability index and GGE biplot) stability parameters. Selection of stable genotypes with high yield based on stability analyses.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Significant phenotypic variation was observed in yield-attributing traits across seasons. Genetic variability and G x E interaction effect demonstrated by variable genotype performance across environments. Univariate and multivariate stability parameters (S<sup>2</sup>i, W<sup>2</sup>i, KSi, AMMI stability value, GGE biplot) were used for stability analyses. Identification of stable genotypes with high yield across environments, including IR13f167, ARC13156, IR93354, F50, Ngalongyi, Giza 178, Arc 10159, Sadajira 19-317, Arith, IR 57920-Ac 25-2-B, Pesagro 102, Mekenzie small, Nasaenge, Kula Karuppan, Vary Gony, MR 69, Kanu Dam, IRRI 123, Sativa IRGC17083-1, Kalia, and Swarna.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concludes that stability in genotype performance across diverse environments is crucial for the development of sustainable rice varieties. Genotypes with high stability and yield, as identified through stability analyses, hold potential breeding value for developing rice varieties adaptive to climate change. The stable genotypes listed, including IR13f167, ARC13156, IR93354, and others, are recommended for further breeding and development efforts to enhance rice productivity and adaptability.</p> Taruna Borule Vipin Kumar Pandey Laxmi Singh Atul Prakash Sathe Akanksha Pradnya Manoj Raut Athira T.G. Shivani Singh Rana Savita Shori Satish B Verulkar Shubha Banerjee Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 27 2 79 89 10.9734/jabb/2024/v27i2701 IPM Essentials: Combining Biology, Ecology, and Agriculture for Sustainable Pest Control https://journaljabb.com/index.php/JABB/article/view/697 <p>Integrated Pest Management (IPM) represents a paradigm shift in pest control, moving away from heavy reliance on chemical pesticides to a more sustainable, environmentally friendly approach. This article explores IPM, an ecosystem based strategy that integrates biological, ecological, and agricultural sciences to achieve longterm pest control in agriculture. IPM emphasizes understanding pest life cycles and their interaction with the environment, utilizing a combination of techniques including biological control, cultural practices, mechanical and physical barriers, and targeted chemical interventions. Regular monitoring and informed decision making form the crux of this approach, focusing on economically viable and environmentally responsible pest control methods. The article highlights various success stories, the challenges faced in implementing IPM, and future directions including the incorporation of precision agriculture technologies and genetic advancements. Overall, IPM emerges as a crucial element in sustainable agriculture, promising to maintain ecological balance while ensuring effective pest management and provides an in depth examination of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a multifaceted approach to sustainable pest control that synergizes biology, ecology, and agricultural science. IPM represents a paradigm shift from traditional, chemically intensive pest control methods to a more holistic, environmentally conscious framework. The core of IPM lies in understanding the life cycles and ecological interactions of pests, employing a diverse array of strategies including biological control through natural predators, cultural practices like crop rotation, mechanical and physical barriers, and judicious use of chemical pesticides. The article underscores the importance of regular monitoring and decision making based on established thresholds to maintain an effective, economically viable, and ecologically responsible pest management system. Case studies highlighting the successful implementation of IPM in various agricultural settings are discussed, alongside the challenges and prospects of IPM, particularly in the context of climate change and technological advancements. The article concludes that IPM is not only essential for sustainable pest control but also pivotal in ensuring long term agricultural productivity and environmental health.</p> Awanindra Kumar Tiwari Copyright (c) 2024 Tiwari; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-17 2024-02-17 27 2 39 47 10.9734/jabb/2024/v27i2697 Strategies and Outcomes in Bee Conservation: Evaluating Impact on Pollination Ecosystems https://journaljabb.com/index.php/JABB/article/view/699 <p>Pollination stands as a crucial process vital for ecosystem maintenance, with pollinators serving as pivotal vectors. Approximately 80% of pollination relies on insects, with bees emerging as primary contributors. Their significant role in ecosystem services and economic value cannot be overstated, given that approximately 30% of food sources directly or indirectly rely on honeybee pollination. Additionally, honeybees provide essential products such as honey, propolis, beeswax, and venom. However, the alarming decline in honeybee populations due to various threats, including habitat loss from land use intensification, pesticides, climate change, pathogens, parasites, diseases, invasive species, and nutritional deficiencies, poses a grave concern. To ensure the conservation of honeybees and sustain pollination for future generations, a multifaceted approach is imperative. Key strategies include promoting beekeeping in urban areas to provide alternative habitats, implementing pesticide bans to mitigate harmful effects, fostering genetic resistance to combat diseases, establishing wildflower strips to enhance foraging resources, employing biocontrol agents for pest management, ensuring proper nutrition through diverse floral resources, and implementing effective sterilization techniques. Evaluating the impact of these conservation efforts on pollination ecosystems is paramount for assessing their efficacy and guiding future conservation initiatives.</p> Deepika Sahu Durge Dansena Khushboo Sharma Priya Gupta Copyright (c) 2024 Sahu et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 27 2 57 66 10.9734/jabb/2024/v27i2699