Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Biology &amp; Biotechnology (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1081)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JABB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Biology &amp; Biotechnology’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology) (Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology) Wed, 17 Feb 2021 12:39:14 +0000 OJS 60 Escherichia coli in Fruit Juice Dispensers <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of juices kept in juice dispensers and sold in retail in canteens and snack bars.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study was done with thirty samples of juice, collected in the morning and in the afternoon, obtained at commercial establishments near Uberaba University, whereas two samples were of cashew juice, two samples of tamarind juice, two samples of passion fruit with mango juice, four samples of guava with acerola juice, eight samples of grape juice and twelve samples of passion fruit juice.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Food Microbiology Laboratory - University of Uberaba.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The temperature at the time of collection was measured. A microbiological analysis was performed. The samples that were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, the analysis was continued, reaching the isolation of <em>Escherichia coli</em> and its subsequent serological identification.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results point to a contamination, over current legal standards, of 66.7% for the samples collected in the morning and of 73.34% for the samples collected in the afternoon. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Greater care in good practices is suggested, especially regarding the personal hygiene of handlers, water quality, sanitation and correct temperature control of fruit juice dispensers.</p> Ana Claudia Chesca, Ariana da Silva Costa, Carolina Bragine Mangucci ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Five Varieties of Castor Beans <p>A comparative study was conducted to estimate biodiesel productivity of five varieties of castor beans<em>: Ricinus communis</em> <em>zanzibariensis {white black} </em>(castor 1), <em>Ricinus communis</em> <em>sanguineus </em>(castor 2<em>), Ricinus communis carmencita </em>(castor 3),<em> Ricinus communis zanzibariensis {dark black} </em>(castor 4) and <em>Ricinus communis {black Tanzania}</em>(castor 5). The castor beans were preheated to a temperature between 22 and 33 ° C and then pressed with a manual hydraulic press, under 170 bars. The oil obtained was subjected to the transesterification reaction with methanol (99.98% pure) in a proportion of 5: 1 in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a catalyst (10,672g) for 02 hours at temperature between 60 and 70 °C. Purification was performed by reacting the methyl ester formed with heated water (55 °C) and acetic acid. The density, the kinematic viscosity at 21 ° C and the proportion of residual soap were determined later. The results for five castor varieties showed that the oil yields varied from 24 to 26.96 %; the volume of methyl ester was higher with castor 4 and lower with castor 5 but there was no significant difference in the biodiesel yields. Castor 2 has the best yield of biodiesel (93.5%), followed by castor 5 (92.5%), castor 3 (91%), castor 1 (90.75 %) and castor 4 (90%).&nbsp; Therefore castor oil 2 has a better potential for biodiesel production.</p> Julius Kewir Tangka, Djousse Kanouo Boris Merlain, Dontsa Tsafack Bertold Donald, Max Croft, Vincent Kitio ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-Anaemic Effect of Cnidoscolus chayamansa (Mc Vaugh) Leaf Extract on Phenyl Hydrazine-Treated Rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anaemia is one of the world's threatening disease conditions of blood disorder that leads to the decrease in red blood cells which affects people of all ages.</p> <p><strong>Aim of the Study:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate the effects of <em>Cnidoscolus chayamansa </em>leaf extract on phenylhydrazine hydrochloride induced anaemia in albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Study Duration:</strong> This study was conducted on 30th June 2019 at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 16 rats were split into four groups. Group A the baseline for negative control, group B positive control, group C pre-treatment and group D post-treatment. Induction was done by intraperitoneal with phenylhydrazine at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Blood was taken for each 2 days interval for PCV, RBC, WBC and Hb. Preliminary phytochemical screening was investigated by standard procedures.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results show a significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in serum PCV, RBC, WBC and Hb concentration when compared with the untreated group. Decrease in serum alanine aminotransferase (15.46±4.443 &amp; 7.80±0.429), aspartate aminotransferase (20.89±1.095 &amp; 11.66±0.898), total bilirubin (13.70±0.351 &amp; 10.45±0.620), direct bilirubin (7.49±0.659 &amp; 3.76±0.042) and alkaline phosphatase (254.25±2.287 &amp; 192.00±1.474) and a significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in serum protein and albumin when compared with untreated group. Iron binding shows a significantly (P&lt;0.05) increase (153.49±0.530 &amp; 166.09±1.334) and (85.16±0.824 &amp;98.43±0.562) while there was a significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in serum Urea (2.39±0.027&amp;4.70±0.047), Creatinine (68.38±0.404&amp;75.01±0.891), and Uric acid (234.92±2.761&amp;246.52±1.136) when compared with the baselines.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The positive effect of the vegetable may be attributed to its rich phytochemicals, nutrients which supports the use of the leaves for food and ethnomedicinal purposes in many parts of Nigeria.</p> R. J. Kutshik, M. K. Jiyil, C. E. Mafuyai, L. L. Ichor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antidiabetic Activity of Physalis angulata in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Wistar Albino Rats <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Physalis angulata </em>have been extensively used for the management of diabetes in folklore medicine, in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of <em>Physalis angulata </em>and its potential mechanisms in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.</p> <p><strong>Study Duration: </strong>The period of the study was done on 30th September, 2018 at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, university of Jos, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Albino rats of Wistar strain weighing between 200g to 250g were induced with single freshly prepared streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight). Diabetes was confirmed after forty eight hours in streptozotocin -induced rats showing fasting blood glucose levels &gt; 10 mmol/l. The rats were randomly divided into four (4) experimental groups (n = 4). A (Control diabetic group fed with normal feed), Group B (Normal control fed with normal feed), Group Group C (Diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/Kg body weight extract of <em>Physalis angulata</em> and Group D, (Diabetic rats are treated with 400 mg/Kg body weight of glibenclamide). After 8 days the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. Changes in the animal body weights were also measured within the period.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>From the results, it was observed that treatment of rats with extract of <em>Physalis angulata</em> elevates the reduction of body weight, and caused an increase in the body weight of the treated rats. In the same order, serum glucose significantly decreased (p&lt;0.05) after the 8-day treatment compared to diabetic control. The extent of reversal of hyperglycemia in the <em>physalis angulata </em>extract treated animals compared well with the glibenclamide treated group. The results, therefore, showed that <em>Physalis angulata</em> extract has a significant (p&lt;0.05) hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and the histopathological results of treated groups showed the regenerative/protective effect on C. E. Mafuyai, C. D. Luka, M. K. Jiyil, . Okon ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Review of the Traditional and Modern Methods of Water Treatment <p>Artificial pollution of groundwater may arise from either point or diffuse sources. Several different means to improve the microbial quality of water and reduce waterborne diseases have been documented around the world.&nbsp; Traditional methods of water treatment include Filtration through winnowing sieve (used widely in Mali), Filtration through cloth (commonly used in villages in India, Mali and the southern part of Niger), Filtration through clay vessels (used in Egypt), filtration through plant material (commonly used in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, India) and Jempeng stone filter method (used in Bali, Indonesia). Modern methods of water treatment include Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS), LifeStraw, Nanofilter, Ceramic water filter, Bio-sand filter and Kanchan Arsenic filter. Comparatively, traditional methods of water treatment employ crude methods which have proved to be effective in relation to filtration but the modern methods make use of newer research technologies in the elimination of pathogens and toxic chemicals to make drinking water more potable and safe.</p> Abayomi Olusegun Adeniyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000