Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Fatty Acid Profiles of Vegetable Oil Brands Consumed in Nigeria

O. B. Ajayi, O. I. Malachi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 200-207
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/15703

Aims: Since techniques employed in refining can reduce the fatty acid nutritional value of edible oil, the fatty acid profile of most widely consumed oil brands in Nigeria were comparatively analyzed.

Study Design: The fatty acid profile of oil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria between June 2014 and July 2014.

Methodology: The fatty acid profile was determined as fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector.

Results: Lahda Soya Oil, Grand Pure Soya Oil and Turkey Vegetable Oil presented the healthiest fatty acid profile with polyunsaturated fatty acids making up about 60% of their fatty acids. Power Vegetable Oil had 40% polyunsaturated fatty acid. Mamador Vegetable Oil, Oki Vegetable Oil and Laser Olive Oil had about 20% polyunsaturated fatty acid but as high as 50% monounsaturated fatty acid. Executive Chef Soya bean Oil and Gino Refined Palm Oil had the least healthy fatty acid profile with about 40% saturated fatty acid.

Conclusion: The fatty acid profiles of the branded oils were not exactly the same with that of the alleged raw material. The difference may be due to manufacturers’ infidelity or the processing techniques employed. Executive Chef “Soya Bean” Oil presented the most obvious perturbation and the least healthy fatty acid profile while Lahda Soya Oil presented the healthiest fatty acid profile.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. Genotypes using Prunus Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

Deniz Erogul, Serra Hepaksoy

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 208-219
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/15508

Turkey, located in the ecological range of mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L.), has a variable genetic population. Mahaleb is the most important rootstock in terms of fruit-growing sweet cherry trees. In this study, we conducted a simple sequence repeats (SSRs) marker analysis of 60 mahaleb genotypes selected from the Anatolian gene sources for molecular characterization and investigation of the genetic relationships. A total of 33 SSR primer pairs selected from sweet cherry and peach were used for genetic identification. We found that 21 SSR markers were polymorphic, with 2 to 7 (average = 3.5) alleles per locus. The allele size varied from 70 to 550 bp. The lowest number of alleles (2) was found in the microsatellite markers EMPaS12A, PceGA25, PS07AO2, BPPCT 034, and BPPCT 038, and the most (7) were found in EMPaSO5. The observed mean heterozygosity value for different loci was 0.74, while the expected heterozygosity was 0.56. The genotypes collected from the same region were closely related and regrouped together. In this study, the SSR markers developed from cherries and peaches were successfully used in the molecular characterization of mahaleb genotypes. The results obtained demonstrated the transferability of the SSR markers between the close relative species in Prunus spp. for the differentiation of the genotypes. Furthermore, the present study identified the mahaleb genotypes present in Anatolia and determined the rich genetic variability in high potentials.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Initial pH on the Performance of Enterobacter aerogenes S012 to Convert Glycerol to Ethanol at Optimum Temperature and Agitation Speed

E. S. Raymond Nwachukwu, Abolghasem Shahbazi, Lijun Wang, A. Salam Ibrahim

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 220-231
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/15622

Aims: (i) To determine the effect of higher initial pH on the effectiveness and efficiency of E. aerogenes S012 in converting glycerol to ethanol; (ii) To identify the best pH range in which the bacterium produces the highest results.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Engineering, North Carolina A & T State University, Greensboro, USA, between March and December 2012.

Methodology: Five initial pH values, 7.5, 8.0, 9.0, 9.5 and 10.0, were tested. Fermentations were also performed at controlled pH, where the pH was restored to 6.5 every 6 h. Fermentations were performed in a shaker incubator for 72-96 h, while the products were analyzed by HPLC.

Results: The results showed that a higher initial pH of 9.5 was best and that pH 6.2-6.5 was optimum for the organism. We also found that a pH drop below 6.0 stalled fermentation when the organism reached the stationary growth phase, but fermentation continued even after log growth phase when the pH remained at or above 6.0. Optimized fermentation gave ethanol amount, yield and average productivity of 43.5 g/l, 1.11 mol/mol-glycerol and 0.45 g/l/h, respectively, in 96 h. This represents more than a 200% improvement in the effectiveness and efficiency of the organism in converting glycerol to ethanol. Productivity of ethanol was highest during the logarithmic growth of the bacterium.

Conclusion: Maintained at slightly acidic pH, E. aerogenes S012 could be an efficient biocatalyst for conversion of biodiesel production “waste” to ethanol, a biofuel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of a Latent Polyphenol Oxidase from Edible Yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata cv. Zrèzrou) Cultivated in Côte D’ivoire

Judicael Kouamé, Sophie Nadège Gnangui, Soumaila Dabonné, Lucien Patrice Kouamé

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 232-249
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/15174

A polyphenol oxidase was purified to homogeneity from edible yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata cv. zrèzrou) cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire. The purification procedure consisted of ion-exchange, ammonium sulphate fractionation, size exclusion and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Dopamine was used as substrate. The enzyme designated PPOZ had native molecular weight of approximately 64.56±0.03 and 64.08±0.23 kDa and functioned as monomer structure. Maximal PPOZ activity occurred at 30°C and pH 6.0. The enzyme was stable at 30°C and its pH stability was in the range of 5.6–7.0. Substrate specificity revealed that the purified enzyme oxidized preferentially dopamine and then, catechol and catechin. PPOZ showed no activity toward the monophenols and was completely inhibited by beta-mercaptoethanol, sodium thiosulphate, L-ascorbic acid, sodium bisulphite and L-cysteine reagents and it was strongly activated by SDS. In this study; the latent PPO was kinetically characterized in parallel with an active PPO present in the soluble fraction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of New Pentaplex PCR Assay for Differentiating Staphylococci from Other Bacteria with Simultaneous Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Genes Encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and Methicillin Resistance

Charles Emeka Okolie, Richard James

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 250-259
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/12934

In some human infections including those of blood, skin and respiratory tract, the causative bacterial agents tend to overlap, especially Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. Such overlaps constitute difficulties in the choice of diagnostic tools, antibacterial chemotherapy and infection control strategies. To resolve this challenge, we developed a pentaplex PCR assay which simultaneously detects sequences for the recognition of bacteria (bacterial 16S rRNA), the genus staphylococcus translation elongation factor Tu (tuf), Staphylococcus aureus (spa), mecA-encoded staphylococcal methicillin resistance (mecA) and the S. aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) virulence factor (pvl). The new pentaplex PCR assay was validated using standard bacterial strains (N=377) including strains from the Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA), the National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC), and the National Collection of Industrial and Marine Bacteria (NCIMB). The new pentaplex PCR assay enables inference of bacterial presence/absence, differentiates between the genus Staphylococcus spp. and other bacteria, separates S. aureus from other Staphylococcus spp., differentiates between methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and detects the S. aureus PVL gene locus. The negative predictive value was 100% while the positive predictive value was 100%. Using a 96-well plate, the time to result was 2.5 hours against ≥24 hours by bacteriological culture. The new pentaplex PCR assay can easily be integrated into routine diagnostic microbiology workflow especially for laboratories with slim budgets which are unable to incorporate next generation sequencing at the moment.