Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement of Xylanase Production by Bacillus subtilis in Submerged Fermentation after UV and Chemicals Mutagenesis

Hooi Ling Ho, Xing Khai Chor

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 42-57
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/16356

Aims: Bacillus subtilis is one of the most utilized industrial microorganisms for its high capability of producing large amount of extracellular enzymes including xylanase. This extracellular enzyme has been used extensively for many years in food and detergents industry. In recent years, many attempts have been made for the improvement of microbial xylanase production by inducing mutagenesis. Thus, the objectives of this study are to produce mutants of B. subtilis using UV and chemicals mutagenesis, subsequently to elucidate the xylanase activity and finally to identify the most effective mutagenic agent for overproduction of this enzyme.

Methodology: In this study, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and chemical mutagens of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and acridine orange (AO) have been selected because of their simplicity of handling and cost-effectiveness as compared to recombinant DNA technology. The efficiency of these mutagenesis was further assessed in submerged fermentation in shake flask culture compared with the non-treated wild type control strain.

Results: Based on our results, B. subtilis that had been induced with 50 µg/mL of AO for 30 min exhibited the overproduction of xylanase with 1.580±0.027 U/mL in submerged fermentation. Indeed, the highest xylanase overproduction reached the maximum peak of 1.638±0.027 U/mL after 30 min of induction using 100 ug/mL of EMS. Apparently, when compared to the non-treated control, xylanase activity experienced the highest percentage of overproduction as much as 15.68% from EMS mutagenesis induced for 30 min in contrast to only 11.58% from B. subtilis that had been induced with 50 µg/mL of AO for 30 min.

Conclusion: In a nutshell, based on our results, EMS evidenced among the most promising mutagenic agent of inducing B. subtilis that capable of overproduction of xylanase to the greater extend as compared to UV irradiation and mutagenic agent of AO.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Effects of the Basal Medium, Auxin and Antioxidants on the Induction and Maintenance of Callus and Taxol Production in Yew (Taxus baccata)

Sahar Bagheri Toulabi, Ahmad Moieni, Faezeh Ghanati, Fereshte Emami

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 58-67
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/13900

Production of Taxol, the most promising chemotherapuetic drug, depends on Taxus spp.  cell culture. Since there are numerous difficulties in the in vitro cell culture of this recalcitrant genus, this study was conducted in order to establish an efficient protocol for callus induction and maintenance of it. Callus cultures from T. baccata young stems were established in B5 and MS media supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. The effects of basal culture media, type and concentration of auxin were assessed on callus growth. The callus morphology (compactness and color) also was compared using non-parametric test (Mann–Whitney U test). The results showed that the best basal medium for callus induction and growth was in B5, and the highest callus growth in B5 medium obtained when NAA was supplied as auxin. Two mg/L NAA was the optimum auxin concentration among different applied levels of this hormone. The results also revealed that incubation of the calli in the dark conditions in the presence of 0.1 g/L of citric acid and ascorbic acid significantly reduced the phenolic secretion from calli, compared to those grown in light or those which were treated with 0.05 g/L of these antioxidants. Following experiments confirmed that stem of T. baccata was the best explant for callus induction and growth. In addition, the morphological study described various callus types and various colors formed during callus induction in the different conditions. The data related to this part confirmed that B5 medium and NAA provided the best tissue type (friable) and color (yellowish-green) of the calli. In the optimized medium, specific yield of Taxol was about 70 µg/g DW (Dry Weight). This amount of Taxol production is noticeable in Taxus spp. c alli, compared with available literature on the production of Taxol by T. baccata cells.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

“Lakh vzla” A Popular Fermented Beef Bone Base Flavour Enhancer from Mafa People in Northern Cameroon

Djoulde Darman Roger, Bayoi James, Bakari Daoudou, Essia Ngang Jean Justin, Etoa François Xavier

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 68-76
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/16158

“Lakh vzla” is one of the most interesting food flavour enhancer used for notabilities amongst Mafa people from Northern Cameroon. With the aims at valorizing this African food enhancer, we studied artisanal processing production and investigated the principal microbiological activities and biochemical modifications which occur during its processing. It was found that the main substrate for this fermentation was bones powder and the source of microorganisms the fat used as melting ingredient. The fermentation time was found to be five to seven days. The process that degrades bone during “Lakh vzla” production was found to be similar to that of diagenesis. The first step in the process involves elimination of the organic collagen fraction by the action of bacterial collagenases. This collagenase may mainly be produced by isolated Bacillus sp. strains. The collagenases break down protein into peptides which are subsequently reduced to their constituent amino acids involved in flavouring and particular odour of “Lakh vzla”. Improvement of the process are proposed to ameliorate both the process production and quality of the end product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of λ – Ratio and Depth of Cut on Draft, Fuel Consumption, Power Consumption and Field Efficiency of an Offset Rotavator under Different Type of Orchards

Ramesh Pal, Jai Prakash Bhimwal, Sachin Choudhary

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 77-83
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/16396

Rotary tillage implements are now being projected as important rotary tools that result in production of fine tilth soil however the rotavator being in line with the tractor at the back cannot be used in orchards due to the hindrance posed by narrow space between the trees. Hence there is need of some tillage tool in offset to the central line of tractor so that it can reach to the area under the tree with the tractor placed in between the rows. In the offset working condition (offset rotavator) the rotary tillage unit can easily reach the strip of soil under low trees and vegetation where tractors could not operate because of limited height. The study was undertaken to examine the influence of λ – ratio, depth of cut at different orchards fields such as mango, guava, and Sapota with dependent parameters such as draft, fuel consumption, power consumption and field efficiency by an offset rotavator. In this paper the results indicated that as the λ – ratio and depth of cut increases the value of draft, fuel consumption, power consumption also increase.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Molecular Detection of Giardia Spp in Different Drinking Water Sources in Karak

Lubna Hassan, Fahim Ullah

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 84-89
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/15937

Aims: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of Giardia spp in different sources of water in District Karak Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Methods of Study: A total of 65 water samples was collected from different villages of District Karak was tested in the lab of the Department of Zoology in Kohat University of Science & Technology with the method of using PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) to detect the prevalence of G in tube well, bore, drainage and tap water.

Results: From the result the prevalence of G in tube well, drainage and bore water were found 10.76%, 1.53% and 1.53% respectively while in the sample of tap water there will be no prevalence of G was detected.

Conclusion: From the result it was concluded that a proper treatment of water for human consumptions is required.