Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Profile, Lipid Per-oxidation and Trace Elements Status in Libyan Males with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Rabia Alghazeer, Asma Al-Najjar, Nadia Alghazir, Soad Bosseri, Basem Swesi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 90-100
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/16791

The metabolism of several trace elements is altered in diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study investigates serum levels of lipid profile and lipid per-oxidation as well as levels of Mg, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, Cr, Se, V and Zn, in 72 males with non- insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 21 non-diabetic healthy control subjects using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results showed highly significant increase in serum concentrations of LDL-C, TG and Cholesterol in T2DM patients in comparison with non-diabetic subjects (P<0.001).  The levels of Zn, Mg and V in male diabetic patients showed significant decline as compared to controls (P<0.001). Also serum Cr and Co showed a significant decrease between non-diabetic subjects and T2DM patients (P<0.05), whereas Ni, Mn and Se showed no significant differences between the control and T2DM patients. The serum Cu level revealed a substantial increase in T2DM patients compared to non-diabetic individuals (P<0.001). Therefore, deficiencies in trace elements and high level of lipid per-oxidation products appear to be possible additional risk factors in the some pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes mellitus and its complications.  In addition, they could be used as markers to evaluate the glycemic control and the lipid status of diabetic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selenium Alleviates the Arsenic Toxicity in Sunflower Seedling

Saidi Issam, Nasri Nawel, Chtourou Yassine

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 101-109
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/17243

Hydroponic experiments were performed to investigate physiological mechanisms of selenium (Se) mitigation of As toxicity in sunflower. The exposure of plants to 10 µM arsenic (As) inhibited biomass production and intensively increased accumulation of As in both roots and leaves. As also enhanced hydrogen peroxides (H2O2) content and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. Presoaking seeds with Se (5, 10 and 20 μM) markedly alleviated the negative effect of As on plan growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages as evidenced by the lowered H2O2 and MDA content. Se particularly enhanced the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), but lowered that of superoxide dismutase (SOD). As important antioxidants, ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) contents in sunflower leaves exposed to As were significantly decreased by Se treatment. These results reveal the potentiating effect of selenium in regulating Arsenic induced oxidative stress in sunflower seedling.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effects of Garcina kola (Bitter kola) against Paracetamol- Induced Oxidative Damage and Glycogen Degranulation in Hepatocytes of Adult Male Wistar Rats

E. Memudu Adejoke, D. Akinrinade Ibukun, Erommonselle Esther, M. Afodun Adam

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 110-116
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/15828

Introduction: The liver is an organ with a particular function of synthesizing and storing glycogen from glucose and other sources. Paracetamol has a compound called acetaminophen that produces a toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), which is capable inducing series of reactions that induces hepatotoxicity in the hepatocytes leading to an increased plasma liver enzyme level, distortion of the hepatic plates, oxidative stress in the liver and loss of glycogen deposition.

Aims: This study was carried out to determine the ability of Garcinia kola to exhibit glycogen deposition and granulation in the presence of liver injury using paracetamol.

Methods: The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Garcinia kola were also analyzed using Glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) enzyme markers. The histoarchitectural changes of Glycogen granulation within the hepatocytes in various treatment groups was accessed using Periodic Acid Schiff’s Staining Protocol. Experimental animals were grouped into five groups: Group A is normal (control) rats; Group B is a hepatotoxic rat model derived by giving 200 mg/kg b.w. of paracetamol (PCM) for the last three days of experiment; Groups C, D and E were, respectively, pre-treated with 10 g, 20 g and 30 g/kg b.w. of Garcinia kola for 21 days before paracetamol was administered via gastric intubation for three days (200 mg/kg b.w. using olive oil as carrier).

Results: The results revealed that Garcinia kola pretreated rats induced a significant decrease at p<0.05 in serum level of liver marker enzyme aspartate transaminase, (AST) and as compared to the increase serum level in hepatotoxic model (B). There was also a significant increase in activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the hepatocytes of those pretreated with Garcinia kola (C, D and E) as compared to hepatotoxic model (B); Garcinia kola pretreated groups (C, D and E) has an increased glycogen granulation as compared to the degranulation in hepatotoxic group.

Conclusion: These results show evidence pointing to the glycogen depositing potentials, hepatoprotective and antioxidative activity of Garcinia kola.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fungal Strain Improvement of Aspergillus brasiliensis for Overproduction of Xylanase in Submerged Fermentation through UV Irradiation and Chemicals Mutagenesis

Hooi Ling Ho, Kuan Fai Ho

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 117-131
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/17274

Aims: One of the major outlooks in biotechnology is to enhance enzymes production using various strains of microorganisms. Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus brasiliensis has been found to be the most promising strain as it produces extracellular enzymes such as xylanase which is easily extracted as compared to other intracellular enzymes. Xylanase has been involved in many industrial applications such as pulp and paper, baking, detergent, food and beverage. Hence, the main objectives of this study are to improve the production of xylanase by A. brasiliensis using physical and chemicals mutagenesis and thus to determine the most effective mutagenesis approach for the overproduction of xylanase.

Methodology: In this study, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and chemical mutagens including ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) were selected as the random mutagenesis methods due to their cost-effectiveness as compared to recombinant DNA technology.

Results: The wild type strain was able to produce 3.097±0.089 U/mL of xylanase at 48 h of submerged fermentation. In contrast, the highest xylanase overproduction of 4.86±0.095 U/mL was achieved from mutant of A. brasiliensis after being exposed to UV for 20 min from a distance of 10 cm. In fact, this UV exposed A. brasiliensis mutant experienced the highest percentage of increment with 56.93% on the overproduction of xylanase as compared to the mutants with the exposure of 150 µg/mL of EMS for 90 min and 150 µg/mL of MNNG for 30 min with the increment of only 1.34% and 17.14%, respectively.

Conclusion: In conclusion, UV mutagenesis was among the most effective mutagenic approach in inducing the overproduction of xylanase by A. brasiliensis compared to EMS and MNNG in this study, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Earthworm and Algae Species in a Trickling Filter

K. Dölle, C. Peluso

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 132-138
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/17861

A trickling filter at a Waste Water Treatment Facility in the Village of Minoa in Central New York State represents an entire ecological community with different algae during the spring, summer, fall and winter months. The algae types present are identified as Cladophora glomerata and a moss-like species of the genus Vaucheria. Earthworm species Eiseniella tetraedra and Dedrodrilus rubidus are found living in the algae and using the algae as a habitat.

A stable isotope analyses was used to investigate the relationship between the worms and the algae. The analyses showed no relationship between the algae and worms growing on the trickling filter, but rather a direct relationship between the worms and wastewater.