Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Anti-diarrheal Activity of Cassia sieberiana in Mice

Madubuike G. Kelechi, Onyeacholam O. Favour

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 139-144
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/13810

Purpose: Cassia sieberiana (Fabaceae), is one plant that has been reported to possess numerous pharmacological activities. The purpose of this study is to scientifically investigate its anti-diarrheal property.

Methods: The anti-diarrheal activity of the methanol extract of Cassia sieberiana leaves was evaluated in mice following various experimental models: Castor oil – induced diarrhea, gastrointestinal motility test and castor oil – induced enteropooling. A standard anti-diarrheal agent, loperamide was used as reference.

Results: Different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) of the extract significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the number of wet fecal droppings in the castor oil – induced diarrhea, and also inhibited the propulsion of charcoal meal plug through the gastrointestinal lumen. All doses of the extract also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the castor oil induced enteropooling. The actions of the extract were dose – related and comparable to the actions of loperamide, the standard drug. The extract did not evoke any sign of acute toxicity in mice at the doses tested; thus it was well tolerated by the mice.

Conclusion: The results suggest that C. sieberiana possess potent anti-diarrheal effect which validates its use as a non – specific regimen for treating diarrhea in traditional medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Assessment of Ready-to-Eat Foods (RTEs) for the Presence Bacillus species

C. E. Aruwa, F. A. Akinyosoye

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 145-152
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/17407

This study aimed to microbiologically assess some ready-to-eat (RTE) foods for presence of Bacillus species. Hygienic conditions of the food vending sites were also considered. Samples were purchased from nine sale points. Sixty ready-to-eat (RTE) food samples (Buns, Meat pie, Egg roll, White rice, Jollof rice and Fried rice) were randomly purchased from cafeteria, canteens and various food vending sites within and around the institution. Immediate microbiological analysis was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of the foods using general purpose (Nutrient agar) for total viable counts, and selective/differential isolation media (HiCrome Bacillus agar - HiMedia) for assessment of Bacillus species. Bacteria isolated with percentage occurrence include Bacillus cereus (11.26%), Bacillus subtilis (21.85%), B. megaterium (24.59%) and B. thuringiensis (25.83%). Other bacilli such as Bacillus stearothermophilus, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefasciens, B. mycoides, B. brevis, B. polymyxa and B. laterosporus constituted 16.56%. Total viable count (TVC) varied significantly among samples, especially with the buns (134.00±0.10) samples in week six. Similar observation was made for differential bacilli count at week 6 (62.00±0.04). TVCs for samples were observed to be within the satisfactory and marginal range for standard plate count (SPC); while differential Bacillus counts were observed within the marginal to unsatisfactory range. No matter how seemingly clean or unkempt the preparatory environment for thee foods, Bacillus species were still present at all sample sites. The research reiterated that ready-to-eat foods (RTEs) rarely meet microbiological standards for quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Appraisal of the Total Phenolic Content, Flavonoids, Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Nutritional Qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (EM-1) and Pleurotus eous (P-31) Cultivated on Rice (Oryzae sativa) Straw in Ghana

N. K. Kortei, M. Wiafe- Kwagyan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 153-164
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/16522

Aim: The nutritional and anti- nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (EM-1) and Pleurotus eous (P-31) cultivated on rice straw were compared.

Methodology: In vitro antioxidant analysis, proximate analysis, refractometry, atomic absorption and Atwaters procedure.

Results: Nutritional results recorded for the two Pleurotus spp. ranged 80.51±0.63- 86.81±0.63, 6.11±0.14 - 9.84±0.10, 17.75±0.17- 15.91±0.17, 15.22±0.17- 24.10±0.39, 2.01±0.24- 4.73±0.28, 55.41±2.70- 45.59±2.40, 15.00±0.18- 15.00±0.18 (Brixo) and 300.61- 321.62 Kcal/100g for moisture content, ash, fibre, protein, lipid, carbohydrates, total soluble solids and metabolizable energy respectively. Mineral elements studied recorded results of 14.10±0.7- 6.00±0.15, 31.9±0.5- 12.15±0.35, 1.77±0.18- 0.76±0.01, 0.02±0.001- 0.01±0.001, 0.03±0.001- 0.19±0.004, 0.37±0.1- 0.23±0.01, 0.04±0.001- 0.02±0.01, 6.41±0.35- 7.60±0.45, 11.02±0.3- 0.37±0.03, 0.02±0.001- 0.10±0.001 and 3.61±0.02- 3.60±0.25 for Na, K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, P, Ca, Pb and N respectively. All the nutritional parameters investigated showed significant difference (P<0.05). Anti-nutritional results recorded ranged 3.57- 5.66 mgGAE/g, 226- 622.6 mgQE/g, 9.0- 13.0 mgGAE/g and 0.25- 1.35 mg ml-1. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content, free radical scavenging ability and IC50 values respectively.

Conclusion: There was significant difference (P<0.05) between anti-nutritional parameters. The results obtained generally showed that P. eous was better than P. ostreatus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Optimization of Amylase Production by Streptomyces cheonanensis VUK-A Isolated from Mangrove Habitats

Krishna Naragani, Vijayalakshmi Muvva, Rajesh Kumar Munaganti, B. S. S. N. Hima Bindu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 165-172
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/18025

Aims: To optimize the cultural parameters for enhanced amylase production by Streptomyces cheonanensis VUK-A.

Place and Duration of the Study: Coringa mangrove ecosystem of Andhra Pradesh, India, between June 2012 and July 2013.

Methodology: About 20 actinobacterial strains were isolated and subjected to primary screening for amylase production. The primary screening was carried out by inoculating the strains on Inorganic salts starch agar medium. The amylase assay was done by using the procedure described by Bernfield. The reaction mixture containing 1 ml of starch solution (10 mg/ml) and 1 ml of enzyme extract was incubated at room temperature for 15 min and the level of reducing sugars was determined by Dinitrosalicylate method. Attempts were made to optimize the various cultural parameters such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources for enhanced amylase productivity of   S. cheonanensis VUK-A.

Results: Among the 20 actinobacterial strains screened, one isolate found to be potential and was identified by morphological, cultural, physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA analysis. The strain was identified as Streptomyces cheonanensis VUK-A. The optimum pH and temperature for amylase production by the strain was found to be 7.0 and 30°C respectively. Different carbon and nitrogen sources were amended separately to the production medium to determine their effect on amylase production. The production of amylase by the strain was enhanced when cultured on ISP-4 broth amended with sorghum flour (30 mg/ml) and peptone (10 mg/ml) with pH 7.0 and incubated at 30°C for 72 h.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that Streptomyces cheonanensis VUK-A isolated from mangrove sediments yielded high amounts of amylase in the medium (ISP-4) amended with sorghum flour (30 mg/ml) and peptone (10 mg/ml) with initial pH 7.0 at 30°C after 72 h of incubation. The enzyme yield before optimization was 4.3 U/ml while it was 11.2 U/ml after optimization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical and Culture-dependent Microbiological Characterization of Spent Pleurotus Composts from Three Different Agro-based Wastes

A. A. Ibiene, P. O. Okerentugba, F. A. Orji, E. N. Dike

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 173-183
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/16065

Aim: Physico-chemical and culture-dependent microbiological properties of spent mushroom compost (SMC) were investigated.

Study Design: The physico-chemical and microbiological properties of spent mushroom composts were determined using standard methods.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Biotechnology, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, oshodi, Lagos-Nigeria between September to December, 2012.

Results: The CW-SMC, SD-SMC, and BSG-SMC, had a total nitrogen content of 30.52 mg/Kg, 22.54 mg/Kg, and 14.20 mg/Kg, respectively while total phosphorus was observed as 14.10 mg/Kg, 12.45 mg/Kg, and 6.45 mg/Kg, respectively. In all the SMC’s studied, Ca had the highest concentration (5.30-6.60 meq/100 g) among other exchangeable cations. The concentrations of Pb, Vn, Fe, Cr, and Ni were within the range of 0.02 mg/kg-8.93 mg/kg but BSG-SMC had the least concentrations of heavy metals. Quantitative compost microbiological analyses showed heavy loads of total culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (1.8-11 x 104cfu/g) and fungi (4.4-8.5 x 104cfu/g) counts. Hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms associated with the SMC’s were: Penicillium sp., Aspergillus niger, Pleurotus ostreatus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Burkholderia species.

Conclusion: SMC’s are good sources of limiting nutrients and hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms.