Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Urethane on Rheological Properties of the Erythrocytes in Rats

L. N. Katiukhin

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/17525

Therapeutic strategies using various preparations and their combinations with different mechanisms of action are gaining increasing attention. But the experiments are carried out in accordance with the work ethic on animals using anesthetics, which change the internal environment. We examined effect of urethane on rheological properties of erythrocytes in rats. Our results demonstrated negative effect resulting in worsens deformability and aggregability of the erythrocytes. Therefore studies on the effect of drugs to hematological parameters and blood rheology which were performed on urethane anesthetized animals, should be considered invalid and incorrect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectrophotometric Studies of the Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extract from Cocoa Pods Infected with Phytophthora palmivora

Emmanuel Dayo Fagbohun, Olajide Sunday Faleye, Opeyemi Uwangbaoje Lawal, Oluwadare Akinyemi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/17904

Aim: To study antibacterial activities of the dichloromethane extract of cocoa pods infected with        P. palmivora on selected bacteria pathogens using paper disc bioassay technique, agar diffusion techniques and spectrophotometric methods.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, (formerly University of Ado Ekiti) Nigeria, between January and July, 2010.

Methodology: The crude extract of cocoa pods infected with Phytophthora palmivora was extracted using dichloromethane. The extract was concentrated using rotary evaporator at 40°C and stored at 4°C. Selected bacteria isolates pathogenic to plants and human were obtained from International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria respectively. The antibacterial study was carried with different concentrations of the extracts 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/ml using spectrophometric methods, paper disc and agar diffusion techniques.

Results: The results of the antibacterial activity using paper disc method showed that Xanthomonas sp. (Cp) was highly susceptible to the extract with highest zone of inhibition followed by Bacillus sp. (R). E. coli, Shigella sp., Pseudomonas sp (R) and Xanthomonas sp (R) had no zone of inhibition. The results of the antibacterial activity using agar diffusion method showed that Xanthomonas sp. (Cp) and Bacillus sp. (R) were highly susceptible to the induced extract with the highest the zone of inhibition followed by E. coli, Shigella sp., Pseudomonas sp. (R) and Xanthomonas sp. (R). The result of the antibacterial activity using spectrophotometric method showed that Xanthomonas sp (R), Xanthomonas sp (Cp), Pseudomonas sp. (R), Bacillus sp (R), E. coli and Shigella sp were highly susceptible to the extract at different concentrations.

Conclusion: This present study showed that extract from infected cocoa pods can serve as a good source of antibacterial agent. Further works should be carried out to purify and determine the structures of the active compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Proton Binding Properties of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in an Expanded Granular Sludge Bed Using Linear Programming Analysis

Y. Liu, S. Chang, F. M. Defersha, Q. Guo, R. Chen

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/18402

Aims: Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced in biological wastewater treatment processes are from substrate metabolisms and biomass decay and mainly consist of proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. The chemical functional groups associated with these polymeric substances determine the charge, hydrophobicity, and chelating capacity of EPS. In spite of the fundamental importance of the proton binding properties of EPS, very limited studies have, to date, been conducted to explore the proton binding properties of colloidal and soluble EPS in biological wastewater treatment systems. The aims of this paper are to demonstrate the application of linear programming analysis of titration data in characterization of the pKa, intensity, and chemical functional properties of proton binding sites of EPS in biological wastewater treatment systems.

Methodology: In this study, EPS has been sampled from a full-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) and a combined chemical composition analysis, linear programming analysis of titration data, and FT-IR analysis method was used to characterize the proton binding properties of the EGSB EPS.

Results: The linear programing analysis determined that the EGSB EPS has 4 proton binding sites with pKa values of 6.4, 7.3, 7.6, and 9.7 at intensities of 1.26, 0.14, 0.25, and 3.12 mmol/g-EPS, respectively. The chemical composition analysis showed that the main acid/base reaction species in the titration sample are proteins, polysaccharides, and phosphates. The FT-IR analysis confirmed that the identified sites could be associated with carboxyl, phosphate, and amine chemical functional groups.

Conclusions: This study illustrated that the combination of chemical composition analysis, the linear programming analysis of titration data, and FT-IR analysis is an effective approach to determine the pKa, intensity, and chemical functional properties of proton binding sites of EPS. Determining the chemical functional properties of EPS is of great importance for studying the fate of heavy metals in biological wastewater treatment processes, sludge bio-flocculation principles, and EPS membrane fouling in wastewater treatment membrane bioreactors (MBRs).

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between Ingestive Behavior and Digestibility Coefficients of Supplemented Grazing Steers, with or without Addition of Propolis Extract (LLOS®)

Anderson Silva, Robério Silva, Gleidson de Carvalho, Fabiano da Silva, Túlio Lins, Lúcia Zeoula, Selma Franco, Ana Paula Silva, Venício Carvalho, George Abreu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/13846

The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between ingestive behavior and apparent digestibility of grazing cattle supplemented with or without propolis extract (LLOS®), during the rainy season. Thirty-two uncastrated crossbred steers (269±4.92 kg) with an average age of 20 months were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with 8 repetitions. Two levels of supplementation were used (0.3 and 0.6% of body weight [BW], on a dry matter [DM] basis), with or without the addition of propolis extract (LLOS®). In treatments with propolis extract (LLOS®), the extract was added daily at 2 g/kg DM supplement. The significance of the correlation coefficient was tested using the "t" test at 5% probability. The parameters evaluated were: Apparent digestibility and ingestive behavior. The digestibility coefficients, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates, showed a positive correlation with the time the animals spent feeding at the trough. The digestibility of total dry matter, organic matter, total carbohydrates and crude protein showed a positive correlation with feed efficiency of crude protein (CPFE) (P<0.05). The feed efficiency of total carbohydrates showed a positive (P<0.05), weak correlation only with the digestibility coefficient of protein. The correlations found in this study allow us to understand, after ingesting the feed and during digestion, the behavioral alterations of animals, adapting to changes in the diets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Magnetic Field on the Growth of Vigna unguiculata

O. F. Olotuah, N. O. Ajayi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/17596

The effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on cowpea yield was considered in a laboratory by exposing viable cowpea seeds to low frequency electromagnetic field producing magnetic strength of values; 50 mG, 100 mG, 150 mG and 250 mG at a constant exposure time of 30 minutes. Seeds of nearly equal weight were used. These seeds were placed in water for 3 minutes for imbibition and later uniformly put in petri dishes. The experiment had three replicates and five treatments         (50 mG, 100 mG, 150 mG, 250 mG and control). The control was kept in place zero magnetic field while each replicate had four seeds. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory at room temperature 35°C. After imbibition and exposure the seeds were planted in pots and transferred to the screen house for growth observations.

Observations made in this study evidently showed that after germination, the growth of seedlings of seeds exposed to magnetic treatment of 100 mG the 3rd day after planting had the highest sprout with emergence percentage of 58.33 compared to other treated seeds and control.