Open Access Short Research Article

Impact of Age on Biochemical Parameters Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Growing Male Albino Rats

Bamidele Salau, Charles Adeosun, Paulina Adeniji, Adeleke Atunnise

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/15594

Aims: This study investigated the cardiovascular risk factors associated with ageing in growing rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Olabisi Onabisi University, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was carried out for twelve weeks.

Methodology: Twenty weanling albino rats strain were used to investigate the relationship between normal ageing process for twelve weeks and cardiovascular risk factors by assessment of some selected parameters such as antioxidant status, haematology and hemorheology, calcium content as well as lipid profile.

Results: Significant increase (p<0.05) was seen in plasma uric acid, Total serum cholesterol, White Blood Cells, Packed Cell Volume, Plasma Viscosity, Fibrinogen, Serum calcium, Bone calcium, Teeth calcium and Fecal calcium; while significant reduction (p<0.05) was observed in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol). No significant difference was observed in other parameters investigated.

Conclusion: This study revealed that ageing process may induce cardiovascular risk factors in normal rats by elevating some parameters in plasma lipids, oxidative stress as well as calcium content in the plasma indicating that the effect of ageing may be more profound on some parameters than others. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Domestic Effluents to Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

Ogaga A. Aghoghovwia, Chizetere M. Aguoru, Elijah I. Ohimain

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/18397

The toxicity of domestic effluent discharge from Niger Delta University (NDU) female hostel on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings was studied using static bioassay method. The exposure period lasted for 96 hours. The fish specimens were acclimatized for one week after which they were distributed randomly into 18 transparent rectangular plastic tanks of 20 litres each consisting of graded effluent treatments; T2 (20%), T3 (40%), T4 (60%) T5 (80%), T6 (100%) and T1 (0%) i.e. the control, all in triplicates, in a completely randomized experimental design. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and detergent concentrations of the water were monitored using standard methods. The data generated were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% probability level using Duncan multiple range test to separate differences between means. Behavioural responses of exposed fish such as erratic swimming, restlessness increase in opercula beating, gasping for air and accumulation of mucus on test organisms occurred in T5 (80%) and T6 (100%) effluent concentration. No mortality was however recorded during the 96hours, probably because water quality obtained such as pH (7.08), conductivity (894 µS/cm), TDS (441 mgl-1) and DO (7.00±0.03 mgl-1) were below the threshold besides the hardy nature of Clarias gariepinus. Levels of NO3, BOD, PO4, turbidity, detergent, total coliform; Pb, Cd, and Cr were however higher than safe limit standards stipulated by statutory bodies to protect aquatic life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Analysis of Effect of Heat Stress on Genomic DNA from Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.)

Onasanya Amos, T. O. Obafemi, A. A. Ojo, M. E. Abu, A. D. Prebor, F. M. Omokhuale, B. A. Afolabi, A. Afolabi, J. A. Falode

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/19575

Aims: Genetic analysis was used to study the effect of heat stress on young seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.).

Study Design: Four different colors of cowpea seeds (white, dirty white, deep brown and light brown) were obtained from GeneBank of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Nigeria. Seeds from each of the cowpea four colors were first pre-germinated and young seedlings subjected to DNA extraction. Extracted DNA subjected to different temperature treatments at 75°C and 100°C for one hour and control not heated.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Sciences Afe Babalola University Ado Ekiti, Nigeria between January 2015 and June 2015.

Methodology: UV wavelength absorption spectrum analysis (A200 – A960) was carried out on control DNA and DNA heated at 75°C and 100°C respectively. Cluster analysis of optical density (OD) data was carried out to establish the relationship between control DNA and heat treated DNA (75°C and 100°C).

Results: DNA concentrations of Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp. were between 0.40 to 1.15 mg/ml, 0.33 to 0.84 mg/ml, and 0.26 to 0.89 mg/ml for control and heat treatments of 75°C and 100°C respectively. DNA UV absorption spectra of control and heat treatments of 75°C and 100°C were generally different due to differential UV wavelength absorption. Cluster analysis revealed three different clusters (cluster 1, cluster 2 and cluster 3) among control DNA and heat treated DNA. Cluster 1 comprised of V1-control, V1-75°C and V1-100°C, with V1-75°C and V1-100°C having similar characters. Cluster 2 was made up of V4-control, V4-75°C and V4-100°C, with V4-75°C and V4-100°C having the same characters. Cluster 3 was largely characterized by dissimilar DNA extracts of V3-75°C, V2-control, V3-100°C, V2-100°C, V3-control and V2-75°C.

Conclusion: Genetic diversity among individual Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp. accession DNA as obtained in this study could possibly be as a result of variations in heat tolerance among dissimilar cowpea genomic compositions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity and Metabolic Fingerprinting of Rare Actinomycetes Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes and Seasonal Ponds in Northern Punjab, Pakistan

Zaheer Iqbal, Imran Sajid

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/20185

Aims: To isolate and identify rare actinomycetes from fresh water lakes and seasonal ponds in northern Punjab, Pakistan, and to screen the isolated strains for antimicrobial activity and compounds against nosocomial pathogens

Study Design: Collection of water and mud samples, sample enrichment and  selective isolation of rare actinomycetes, laboratory scale cultivations, solvent extractions, agar diffusion and disc diffusion assays, chemical profiling and metabolic fingerprinting by TLC and HPLC

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, during September 2013 to August 2014. 

Methodology: In this study about thirty rare actinomycetes strains were selectively isolated from the soil and mud samples collected from different fresh water lakes and seasonal ponds in district Narowal, Pakistan. The isolates were identified by cultural, morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization. The methanolic crude extracts obtained from the culture broth of the selected isolates were subjected to a comprehensive biological and chemical screening process using agar diffusion assay, cytotoxicity assay, thin layer chromatography, HPLC-UV/RI etc.   

Results: The study revealed that the selected isolates exhibit close similarity with genera Nocardia and Micromonospora. The selected strains exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against a panel of nosocomial bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus. The methanolic crude extracts analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) exhibited an impressive diversity of the chemical constituents present in extracts.

Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the isolation, identification and screening of the rare actinomycetes from untapped ecological niches like fresh water lakes and seasonal ponds in our area is highly useful for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds that are effective against wide range of pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Enzymic, Non-enzymic Antioxidants and In vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Different Extracts of Leaves and Roots of Eclipta alba

A. Karunambigai, S. Gayathri Devi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/18396

To obtain the scientific evident for antioxidant properties of Eclipta alba by using enzymic, non-enzymic antioxidant activity and in vitro free radical scavenging activity. This study was conducted on different organic solvents and hot aqueous extracts of leaves and root of Eclipta alba were tested for enzymic, non-enzymic antioxidant activity and in vitro free radical scavenging activity. Among the enzymic antioxidants tested interestingly, in leaves and roots, glutathione reductase showed potent activity of 178.2±4.5 U/mg, 120±9.0 U/mg respectively. Carotenoids expressed 305.5±1.70 mg/g being the most effective among the other non- enzymic antioxidants tested. All the extracts of leaves and roots exhibited a potent inhibition against DPPH free radical, hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and superoxide generation. The data obtained in the in vitro tests clearly established the antioxidant potency of all extracts. Hence, overall results suggested that E. alba is a promising source of bioactive compounds that can be exploited as antioxidants in food products as well as in pharmaceutical therapeutic and cosmetic industry use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodegradation of Phenanthrene by Klebsiella sp Isolated from Organic Contaminated Sediment

Saad El Din Hassan, Said E. Desouky, Amr Fouda, Mamdouh S. El-Gamal, Ahmed Alemam

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/23613

Aims: This study report the ability of some bacterial strain to degrade the phenanthrene which is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and to optimize the condition controlling the phenanthrene biodegradation.

Study Design: Collect different petroleum contaminated sediment samples, isolate phenanthrene-degrading bacteria on media supplemented with phenanthrene as a unique carbon source, select and identify the most potent bacterial strain. Finally, some of the most biotic and abiotic parameters were optimized to enhance the bacterial biodegradation of phenanthrene.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed in Microbial Physiology Lab, Botany & Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-azhar University, from October 2013 until April 2014.

Methodology: Various bacterial strains were isolated on media with phenanthrene (400 ppm) as sole carbon source. The most potent bacterial strain was selected on the basis of their capacity to degrade phenanthrene. Different factors such as pH, temperature, inoculum size, shaking and static condition which affect on the biodegradation of phenanthrene were studied depending on estimation the biodegradation ratio of phenanthrene.

Results: The most potent bacterial strain (SB_2.1) which showed the highest biodegradation ratio of phenanthrene was identified as klebsiella sp. on the basis of morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. The results revealed that the optimum parameters for maximum degradation of phenanthrene were observed after 21 days at pH value of 7.0 and temperature of 30°C with shaking speed of 150 rpm and at 2% inoculum concentration. The results showed that, this strain of klebsiella sp degraded approximately 84.9% of phenanthrene at an initial concentration of 400 mg/L under the optimal conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aerobic Biodegradation of BTX by Halophilic Planococcus sp. Strain TS1 Isolated from Egypt

Said E. Desouky, Mamdouh S. El-Gamal, Mohammed G. Barghoth

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2015/23640

Aims: The purpose of the present study is to isolate pure halophilic bacteria potentially able to degrade BTX compounds as a sole carbon source under aerobic condition. Such these studies are necessary for bioremediation application of hydrocarbons in our ecosystem.

Study Design: Isolation of halophilic bacterial strains from hypersaline soil of Wadi An- Natrun, in Egypt. Selected isolates able to utilize BTX compounds as the only carbon and energy source. Efficiency of biodegradation ability will be enhanced via optimizing microbial growth condition. Most potent isolate will be identified through phenotypic and phylogenetic characterizations.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed in Physiological Lab in Botany and Microbiology Department in Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt from May 2013 until October 2015.

Methodology: The halophilic bacterial strains were selected based on its ability to grow in the presence of high salt concentration and undiluted Toluene (~222 μmol) which served as the only source of carbon. Subsequently select the most potent isolate and identify it. Thereafter, study some factors affecting on the biodegradation of toluene and estimated the biodegradation ratio of BTX by Purge-Trap GC-MS.

Result: Fifty halophilic bacteria isolates are capable of utilized toluene as the only source of carbon and energy isolated from alkaline soils in Al- Hamra Lake, Wadi An Natrun, Egypt. One isolate was selected as the most potent strain. Based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence and phenotypic characterizations the strain TS1was most closely related to the Planococcus maritimus with similarity 95% which belong to family Planococcaceae. Strain TS1 could grow at temperatures between 20 up to 40ºC, pH 5 to 8 and salt concentrations from 5 to 20%. Its optimal conditions for biodegradation of Toluene were 30ºC, pH 8 and 10% salt concentration. Purge-Trap GC-MS analysis showed that, strain TS1 has the ability to degrade 25.33% of toluene and 46.67% of xylene in addition 47.55% and 46.84% of benzene and toluene mixture respectively, during first 24 h of incubation. This study suggests that strain Planococcus TS1 may play an important role for biodegradation of BTX in different marine contaminated sites.