Open Access Short Research Article

Antioxidant, Anticancer and Antibacterial Activity of Withania somnifera Aqueous Root Extract

D. A. Barnes, R. Barlow, P. Singh Nigam, R. Owusu-Apenten

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/22523

Aims: To evaluate total antioxidant capacity, anticancer activity and antibacterial effects Withania somnifera aqueous-root extracts.

Study Design: In vitro study.

Place of Study: School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, UK.

Methodology: Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of whole powder and freeze dried W. somnifera aqueous-root extracts was determined using FRAP, DPPH, Folin and ABTS assays. Anticancer activity was accessed using MDA-MB-231 breast cells and Sulforhodamine B staining for cell viability. Antibacterial activity was by disk diffusion assay with penicillin, amoxicillin and streptomycin as positive controls.

Results: The TAC for W. somnifera extract was 86, 47, 195,or 443 gallic acid equivalents per 100g dry basis (mgGAE/ 100 g) using FRAP, DPPH, Folin or ABTS assays, respectively. Corresponding TAC values for freeze dried W. somnifera aqueous-root extract were, 418, 553, 1898 or, 1770 (mgGAE/100 g). W. somnifera aqueous-root extract inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 = 0.19 mg/ml (21 µM GAE). Nil antibacterial effects were detected for freeze dried W. somnifera extract (0-1 mg/ml) across six species of bacteria tested.

Conclusion: Withania somnifera root water extract showed significant antioxidant and anticancer activity for MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells but no antibacterial activity under the conditions of this study.

Open Access Short Research Article

Antioxidant, Anticancer and Antimicrobial, Effects of Rubia cordifolia Aqueous Root Extract

R. Barlow, D. Barnes, A. Campbell, P. Singh Nigam, R. Owusu-Apenten

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/22625

Aims: To evaluate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of Rubia cordifolia root extracts, to test anticancer activity against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, and to evaluate antimicrobial activity of the same extract versus six Gram-positive and negative bacteria.

Study Design:  In vitro.

Place of Study and Duration: School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, July 2014-Sept 2015.

Methodology: TAC was tested using ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and Folin assays and values were expressed as mg-gallic acid equivalents per 100 g (GAE/100 g) of sample. Anticancer properties were examined against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines using Sulforhodamine B assay. Antimicrobial activity was examined using a disk diffusion assay with three Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi) bacteria.

Results: TAC of dry extracts of Rubia cordifolia ranged from 523±43 to 4513±208 (mg GAE mg/100 g) depending on the method of analysis, ABTS> FRAP> Folin > DPPH methods.                R. cordifolia dry extract showed cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 with IC50 = 44 µg/ml or 5.1µM GAE. No antimicrobial activity was observed against the three Gram-positive, or three Gram-negative bacterial species using the water extract or R. cordifolia.

Conclusion: R. cordifolia aqueous extract possess high total antioxidant capacity but values depend on the method of analysis. R. cordifolia extract inhibits MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells proliferation but nil anti-bacterial activity was observed for three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacterial strains tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Potential of Staphylococcus Species from Specific Environment in the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

A. O. Ogundare, F. O. Ekundayo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/20465

Staphylococci are Gram-positive bacteria, with diameters of 0.5 – 1.5 μm and characterised by individual cocci, which divide in more than one plane to form grape-like clusters. They are non-motile, non-spore forming facultative anaerobes that grow by aerobic respiration or by fermentation. The present animal that has been infected with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) to study their pathogenicity. Nine wistar albino rat were divided randomly into three groups (each group contain 3 animals): group (1) (control group) were kept without inoculation. The second and third group (treated group) were inoculated intra-dermal with (0.5 ml) of bacterial inoculum (2.6 x 105) cfu/ml. The blood samples of the animals were taken to test for their blood parameters which include packed cell volume, red blood cell, white blood cell counts, neutrophil, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosin, and basophil. The clinical signs noticed in infected groups were decreased appetite, mild fever and abscess formation in one or two of the animals at site of injection. Histopatological investigations were carried out on the kidney, lungs and liver. The statistical analysis revealed that there was significant increase in red blood cell, (p<0.05) in infected group as compared with control while the packed cell volume, neutrophil, white blood cell, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosin, and basophil showed no significant differences when compared with the control group (Table 1). Histopathological study revealed that there were: vacuolization of glomerular (VG) and vacuolization of the tubules (VT), distruption of glomerular capillaries (DG) and distruption of congested glomerular with vacuolar appearance (CGV) in the kidney cell, in liver: there were ruptured vein (RV), mild Kuffer cells infiltration (MK) and necrotic effects (N) and in the lungs there were edema (E), hemorrhage (H), necrotic effects (N), hemorrhage and necrosis (HN) in the infected wistar albino rat. In conclusion the colonization with strains of S. epidermidis and S. aureus cause devastating effects on certain vital organs such as kidney, liver and lungs which, depending on their severity, which could be fatal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatorenal Protective Effects of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Juice against Nicotine Induced Toxicity in Guinea Pigs

Mohamed Omar Albasha, Azab Elsayed Azab

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/21996

Pomegranate juice possess a marked antioxidant capacity with a high content in tannins, phenols and flavonoids which can directly or indirectly reduce oxidative damage by preventing the excessive generation of free radicals. The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the harmful effects of nicotine induced hepatorenal toxicity in Guinea pigs. In this study, twenty four adult male Guinea pigs were used for this study and divided into four groups. The first group was control group, the 2nd group was administered the pomegranate juice orally, the 3rd was the experimental and received intraperitoneal injection of nicotine (6 mg/kg body weight /day), the 4th one co-administered intraperitoneal injection of nicotine (6 mg/kg body weight /day) and pomegranate juice  orally for 8 weeks. Blood samples were obtained for assessment of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and γ- glutamyltransferase activities, total proteins, albumin, and globulin concentrations, albumin concentration/globulin concentration (A/G) ratio, urea, uric acid, creatinine, sodium ions, and potassium ions concentrations. In nicotine treated animals, the serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and γ- glutamyl transferase activities, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and potassium ions concentrations were significantly (p<0.05), increased as compared to the control group. On the other hand, serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, sodium ions concentrations, and A/G ratio of nicotine treated Guinea pigs were significantly (p<0.05) decreased as compared to the control Guinea pigs. Co-administration of pomegranate juice significantly improved all biochemical parameters. It can be concluded that, nicotine had adverse effects on liver and kidney functions parameters in the blood serum. Pomegranate juice administration showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities in nicotine treated male Guinea pigs. It is recommended that the heavy smokers should be advised to take pomegranate juice as a rich source of antioxidant to prevent the hepatorenal toxicity of nicotine. Further studies are necessary to elucidate exact mechanism of hepatorenal protection and potential usefulness of pomegranate juice as a protective agent against nicotine induced hepatorenal toxicity in clinical trials.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Effects of Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae) against Field Crops and Pathogens Causing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle in three Districts of Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Kefyalew Alemayehu, Tadesse Desalegn

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/20787

The destructive nature of Argemone mexicana against field crops and grazing lands as invasive species and, the antibiotic effect for treating common diseases of dairy cattle causing mastitis were investigated at Farta, Gondar and Bahir Dar zuria districts. Plant materials were extracted and the bacteria were isolated from milk of cows infected by mastitis. Finally, sensitivity tests were conducted using standard laboratory procedures. The results revealed that the mean distribution of Argemone in roadside land use type (18.53±6.2) was higher than that of fallow land (4.25±0.75) and farmland (2.72±0.44). The mean abundance per transect belt in 2013 in Farta district (8.5±8.3) was higher than that of Bahir Dar zuria (7.7±8.0) and Gondar district (5.6±4.4). The antibacterial activity of oil cakes extracted from cooked and raw seeds, and fresh plant juice extracts revealed strong inhibition in bacterial growth. Cakes produced from cooked Argemone seeds shown strong inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli than Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus aglaciatae. As the distribution and abundance of the plant increased, the abundance and distribution of native plant species decreased. However, Argemone plant extracts shown excellent potential in treating diseases of mastitis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Heroin Use on Liver Enzymes

S. Farooqi, T. Altaf, H. Mubeen, S. Raza

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/22047

Aim: A study of enzymes in the liver of heroin addicts enables a precise overview of the degree of the liver damages caused by heroin abuse, deviation of enzymes from the normal healthy values and degree of presence of hepatitis in intravenous heroin abusers.

Materials and Methods: The levels of three liver enzymes alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in blood samples of the heroin addicts were investigated. The liver function tests were conducted on 25 serum samples of heroin addicts and 25 control serum samples. The age of male subjects was between 25-45 years.

Results and Discussion: In the investigated group of heroin addicts, serum samples showed changes in the enzyme levels. Nearly 52% heroin addicts showed elevated liver enzymes and 32% out of 52% heroin addicts showed elevated enzyme levels with positive HCV and HBsAg tests. The established changes correlated with the duration of heroin abuse and presence of HBV and HCV positive results. The study showed that the most prominent change is the elevation of enzymes and it is the only direct consequence of liver damage due to heroin use.