Open Access Original Research Article

Implication of Testosterone in Human Puberty Attainment

Olufemi Ebenezer Akinluwade, Alphonsus Ekpe Udoh, Kunle Joseph Akinluwade

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/22543

This study evaluated and compared the serum levels of testosterone in male and female subjects aged 6—10 years. It also assessed the number of children among the subjects who could be potential candidates for precocious puberty based on their hormone levels. Male subjects in the study were 78 (44.1%) with a mean age of 8.3±1.4 years, height of 1.31±0.08 m, mean weight of 26.20±4.83 Kg, and Body Mass Index (BMI) of 15.30±1.71 kg/m2. Female subjects were 99 (55.9%) with a mean age of 8.55±1.37 years, height of 1.34±0.10 m, weight of 27.78±5.36 Kg, and BMI of 15.38±1.68 kg/m2. Results from statistical and clinical analyses showed that female subjects were significantly heavier and taller than male subjects (p <0.05) but the BMIs for both sexes were identical (p>0.05). Male subjects had mean testosterone of 0.49±0.38 ng/ml compared with mean testosterone of 0.57±0.59 for the female subjects. There is no significant age dependent differences in the levels of testosterone in both sexes. Based on the levels of testosterone of the children, only one of the children was adjudged qualified as candidate for precocious puberty.


Open Access Original Research Article

Inductions of Defense Response in Olive Plants against Verticillium dahliae through Application of Salicylic Acid as Abiotic Inducer

Yaakoub Gharbi, Emna Bouazizi, Mohamed Ali Triki

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/23694

Aims: To find suitable approach to control V. dahliae, we evaluated the potential of salicylic acid in the induction of systemic resistance in olive plants and determine whether acquired resistance is correlated with soluble proteins and polyphenol contents.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was performed in the Laboratory of Phytopathology at the Olive Tree Institute (Sfax, Tunisia) between July 2014 and June 2015.

Methodology: Olive plants were pre-treated with 10 mM salicylic acid and then inoculated with pathogenic V. dahliae isolate. Symptoms were monitored for three months and plant tissues samples were regularly analyzed for their soluble protein and polyphenol contents at 15, 30 and 45 days after inoculation. The effect of salicylic acid treatment on soluble proteins expression was evaluated using SDS-PAGE.

Results: Pre-treatment with salicylic acid resulting in a decrease of disease incidence from 91.96% to 29.33% after 45 days of pathogen inoculation. The maximum increase in soluble proteins content was recorded in salicylic acid pre-treated plants with 1.5-fold, 1.87-fold and 2.25-fold at 15, 30 and 45 days after pathogen inoculation as compared to control plants. Similarly, phenol content was also significantly higher in salicylic acid treated plants, representing 1.5-fold, 2.1-fold and 2.7-fold at 15, 30 and 45 days of inoculation as compared to the control plants. Correlation coefficient analyses revealed that there was negative correlation between disease severity, soluble protein and polyphenol contents after 15, 30 and 45 days of treatment. Protein profiling by SDS-PAGE revealed that salicylic acid induced the synthesis of new proteins. The genomic DNA integrity was confirmed by obtaining of unique RAPD banding patterns for treated and untreated plants.

Conclusion: Overall, a pre-treatment of olive plants by salicylic acid lead to low disease severity and suppress the fungus pathogenicity through overexpression of proteins and polyphenol compounds involved in plant defense.


Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS Evaluation, Phytochemical and Antinutritional Screening of Ganoderma lucidum

O. Olukayode Orole

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/24261

Aims: To qualitatively and quantitatively determine and evaluate the phytochemicals and anti-nutritional components of Ganoderma lucidum.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Adekulne Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife.

Methodology: Twelve mushrooms of Ganoderma lucidum were harvested for the study. The mushrooms were assayed for proximate, antinutritional and phytochemical composition using conventional methods. The metabolite composition was estimated using GC-MS.

Results: The mushrooms contain 29.30% crude fibre, 42.10% total carbohydrate, and 6.33% ash while the antinutritive factors present include cyanide 0.008 mg/100 g, and phytate 0.012. Extract of the fungus in the present study do not contain tannins, anthraquinones, and volatile oils while other phytochemicals were found in it.  The GC-MS result showed the mushroom contains saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (organic compounds), organometallic compounds, and alkanes. Compounds like 17-Pentatriacontene, 5-Eicosene, 3-Eicosene, 1-Docosene were extracted by the two solvent systems though more compounds were extracted by N-Hexane than Ethyl acetate. The first compounds were extracted at retention time of 19.195 min.

Conclusion: The study alluded to the fact that unique advantageous compounds abound in the fungus which may be relevant to mans’ health and useful for his day to day activities though further research is still needed to better validate the use of the mushroom.


Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Epidemiology of Verticillium Wilt of Olive in Southern and Central Tunisia: Evidence of Host Adaptation Hypothesis

Yaakoub Gharbi, Emna Bouazizi, Radhouane Gdoura, Mohamed Ali Triki

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/23695

Aims: During the last two decades, verticillium wilt of olive has spread to young olive orchards where highly susceptible crops such as potato, watermelon and tomato are cultivated near to olive orchards.
It was therefore hypothesized that there is an adaptation phenomenon that drives the pathogenicity of V. dahliae in order to infect a broad range of hosts. Therefore, it will be useful to identify the factors that increase the severity of the pathogen which helps growers to implement the appropriate crop rotation program.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was performed in the Laboratory of Phytopathology at the Olive Tree Institute (Tunisia) between December 2013 and March 2015.

Methodology: This study was conducted using 62 isolates of V. dahliae recovered from potato, sunflower and olive. Primarily, a cross pathogenicity tests were performed with the three plant hosts using an artificial infection bioassay. Subsequently, all the isolates were compared at the molecular level using twelve SSR markers and the number of genotypes in each group of isolate was determined by assigning a specific SSR haplotype. The relationship between the isolates groups was defined by comparison of SSR genotypes and pathogenicity data obtained for each isolate.

Results: Olive and potato isolates were pathogenic to both crops with similar disease severity. By contrast, only sunflower isolates were unable to infect sunflower plants. SSR analysis revealed that olive group is the most diversified one with 12 different genotypes followed by the sunflower one. When isolates groups were compared, we concluded that potato and olive groups are highly similar at pathogenic and molecular levels whereas sunflower group was genetically different.

Conclusion: Potato and olive isolates were able to infect both crops with similar pathogenicity level which suggest that these isolates have a well-adapted virulence factors to successfully invade their hosts. By contrast, sunflower isolates were unable to induce wilting on olive plants which could be explained by the fact that sunflower is unusually cultivated near to olive orchards and therefore isolates from this host are not adapted to infect the olive.


Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Conditions for Biosorption of Chromium and Cadmium by Shell of Anodontoides ferussacianus

Suleman Shahzad, Atif Yaqub, Nazish Mazhar Ali, Mudassar Hussain, Usman Ahmad, Noman Shahzad

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/25229

The biosorption of chromium [Cr (VI)] and cadmium [Cd (II)] ions using dead biomass of bivalve mollusk shell, Anodontoides ferussacianus was studied. Effect of various physico-chemical parameters was determined. Optimum pH was 4, temperature was 30°C, biosorbent concentration was 15 g/L and sorbate-sorbent contact time was 90 min with equilibrium concentration (qeq) of 300 mg/g and 280 mg/g for Cr (VI) and Cd (II) respectively. Many models of adsorption isotherm were used like Temkin, Langmuir and Freundlich. Regression coeffient (R2) values of Cr (VI) and Cd (II) were 0.99 & 0.97 for Langmuir, 1 & 0.99 for Freundlich, 0.99 & 0.97 for Temkin respectively. Vaious parameters of these models were also determined for Cr (VI) and Cd (II) with Langmuir’s qmax= 12.6 and 14.4 mg/g respectively and Fruendlich’s KF= 1.6 and 1.18 respectively. This shows multilayer sorption by A. ferussacianus shell for Cr (VI) and Cd (II). Kinetic model of Pseudo-second order revealed the process of Kinetics [K2= 0.19 & 2.4 and R2=0.96 & 0.93 for Cr (VI) and Cd (II) respectively]. Additionally, shifts in FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy) spectra indicated the binding sites of specific functional groups (–OH, -NH, C=O and S=O) for Cr (VI) and Cd (II) on biosorbent surface.