Open Access Short communication

Inhibition of Major Listeria monocytogenes Serotypes Grown in Media Supplemented with Aqueous Extracts of Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina

Ogueri Nwaiwu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26026

Aims: To determine the growth inhibitory effect of extracts of Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina on major Listeria monocytogenes serotypes.

Study Design: Preliminary analytic observational studies.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Nottingham, United Kingdom; Study was carried out between September 2012 and September 2013.

Methodology: The major serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c found in evolutionary lineage I and II were grown in media containing aqueous extract of Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina obtained from a 250 g/l leaves decoction. The percentage growth inhibition relative to the control was determined by taking viable counts of L. monocytogenes after growth for 24 hours at 30°C in Brain Heart Infusion broth supplemented with 10, 20, and 30% w/v of the extracts. 

Results: It was found that there was no significant growth reduction for media supplemented with 10 and 20% (v/v) of the extracts. However significant (p < 0.5) inhibition was observed for cultures of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b grown in media supplemented with 30% (v/v) of extracts of V. amygdalina. The highest growth reduction was 29% and overall, more inhibition was found with extracts of V. amygdalina than extracts of G. latifolium

Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of G. latifolium and V. amygdalina appeared to inhibit major serotypes of L. monocytogenes but they were not bactericidal. Serotypes 4b maybe more sensitive to the extracts than other serotypes. If further purification of the aqueous extracts studied is carried out, microbial retardants could be developed which may help to delay the growth of L. monocytogenes where ever they are prevalent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Simulated Acid Rain on the Growth, Yield and Plant Component of Abelmoschus caillei

M. O. Eguagie, R. P. Aiwansoba, K. O. Omofomwan, O. O. Oyanoghafo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/24804

This study was undertaken to observe the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the growth, yield and plant component of Abelmoschus caillei. The plants were exposed to different levels of simulated acid rain acidified at pH 6.0 (control), 5.5, 4.5, 3.5 and 2.5. The results indicated that under the stress of simulated acid rain, growth parameters measured such as leaf number, shoot height, fresh and dry weight and stem girth were significantly reduced in plant subjected to SAR when compared with the control treatment. There was a gradual decline in chlorophyll content index as the level of acidity increased. Plants treated with pH 6.0 and pH 5.5 SAR had good growth and yield. Simulated acid rain (SAR) induced morphological changes such as chlorosis and necrosis in A. caillei. It was concluded that growth, yield and plant component were adversely affected when A. caillei was exposed to simulated acid rain with pH value 4.5 below.


Open Access Original Research Article

Heterosis and Heritability Estimates of Some Yield Traits in Eight Hybrids of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao)

Olalekan Ibrahim Sobowale, Benjamin Oluwole Akinyele, Alexander Chukwunweike Odiyi, Daniel Babasola Adewale, Anna Abimbola Muyiwa

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/24387

The quest to understand the inheritance pattern of some traits in generated progenies of some parental clones of cocoa lead to this study. Hybridization was carried out to generate progenies from eleven parental clones. The hybrids were established in a randomized complete block design of six replications in a hybrid evaluation trial plot at the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), Ibadan in 1999. Data were collected on some yield parameters from the parents and the hybrids. Heritability, component of genetic variation and heterosis were estimated for the traits. The collected data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were significant variation (P<0.05) among the nineteen genotypes for all the studied traits except the placental weight and bean weight per pod respectively. Among the parents, Pound 7 had the highest pod weight. However, P7xPA150 had the highest number of bean per pod. Some of the hybrids exhibited significant heterosis for most of the yield traits. Their inclusion in commercial cocoa production can lead to the improvement of the national cocoa productivity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Genetically Modified Potatoes against the Black Cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under Laboratory Conditions

W. A. Atwa, M. M. Adel, N. Y. Salem, D. S. Farghaly, S. S. Ibrahim

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/25621

Some physiological and biological aspects of black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon feed on genetically modified potatoes, Newleaf Superior expressing Cry3Aa and Desiree GNA were examined using bioassay experiments under laboratory conditions. The results showed that significant different in body weight has been found between N.L. Superior, Desiree GNA  and control with feeding larvae since 3rd larval instar. The larvae showed a highly significant prolongation in the larval duration in comparison with control and with N.L. Superior respectively. The leaves ingested and assimilated had a positive effect and significantly reduced in the larvae appeared the most food utilization parameters were less than those of the control larvae. The food consumed by the larvae was 37.36±2.87 and 30.80±1.31 mg for N.L. Superior and GNA respectively, and increased to 87.86±1.48 and 90.22±3.12 mg for the control of N.L. Superior and GNA respectively, while it reached to the maximum value with the larvae feed on non-transgenic potatoes leaves (94.16±2.48 mg). On the other hand the conversion of digested leaves to biomass was higher in the larvae feed on N.L. Superior concluded that  the presence of Cry3Aa in N.L. Superior leaves and Desiree GNA reduced biomass increment reducing food intake and decreased digestibility but increased the ratio of digested food (ECD) converted to biomass.


Open Access Original Research Article

Surface Colour Changes of Turkish Hazelnut Wood Caused by Heat Treatment

Halil Turgut Sahin, Suleyman Korkut

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/25111

The influence of thermal treatment conditions on natural colour of Turkish hazelnut wood was investigated. It was realized that the elevated temperature and prolonged treatment time usually effects on darker tone on wood samples.  However, the greatest lightness (DL) changes occurred in 180ºC and 10 hour treatment (37% decreases) followed by 180ºC and 6 hour (25% decrease) and 120ºC and 6 hour (24% decrease) treatment conditions, respectively. Moreover, the greatest changes for coordinate a* (green-red) were also realized at 180ºC and under 10 h treatment conditions.

For FT-IR analyses, the heat treated hazelnut sample exhibited the diminished absorption in 900–1200 cm–1 region relative to the polysaccharides where a less complex in-plane C-C vibration was dominant.