Open Access Original Research Article

Simultaneous Carbon-Oxidation and Nutrient (N and P) Reduction in a Batch-Fed Reactor by Pseudomonas sp. P1 Isolated from a Small-scale Slaughterhouse Wastewater

Pradyut Kundu, Varsha Datta, Somnath Mukherjee

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/25932

Aims: Laboratory scale evaluation of phosphorus removal along with organic and nitrogen reduction in a batch reactor under anoxic-aerobic environment using Phosphorous Accumulating Organisms (PAOs).

Study Design: Isolation of the predominant bacterial species through phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of acclimatized sludge collected from a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. Selected isolates able to utilize acetate compounds as superior carbon and energy source in sequential mode of operation.

Place and Duration of Study: Environmental engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India from March 2013 until October 2015.

Methodology: Biological phosphorous study was performed in presence of acclimatized PAOs under anoxic and aerobic condition environment in a batch fed reactor. Selection and Isolation of the most potent isolate and identify PAO species by 16S rDNA study. Thereafter, kinetics study of phosphorous reduction in presence of organic carbon and nitrogen source along with some important process parameters affecting the performance.

Results: Molecular phylogenetic identification, supported by chemotaxonomic and physiological properties assigned isolated PAOs (Pseudomonas sp. P1) as a close relative (99%) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolated PAOs (Pseudomonas sp. P1) showed that 94.30% SCOD reduction from an initial SCOD value of 600±20 mg/L and 81.38% and 87.98% of NH4+-N and PO43--P removal from an initial NH4+-N and PO43--P concentration of 50±5 and 10±1 mg/L, after 24 hr contact period in a batch reactor. 

Conclusion: The investigation result demonstrated that the bacterial species Pseudomonas sp.P1 exhibited appreciable removal of phosphorous along with organic (SCOD), nitrogen (NH4+-N, NO3--N) in the batch reactor under anoxic and aerobic condition sequentially which may be applied for real life situation particularly to treat slaughterhouse effluent.


Open Access Original Research Article

Properties of Particleboards Produced from Poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) Stalks

Mustafa Burak Arslan, Halil Turgut Sahin

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/24977

The objective of this work was to examine the suitability of poppy stalks for particleboard manufacturing. One-layer experimental panel with density of 0.45; 0.55 and 0.65 g/cm3 made from poppy stalks utilizing 8-10% urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin. The experimental boards were evaluated for Modulus of Rupture (MOR), Modulus of Elasticity (MOE), Internal Bond strength (IB), Surface Strength (SS), Thickness Swelling (TS) according to related standards. The mechanical properties of boards shown that poppy stalks could be an appropriate raw material for particleboards production. The result clearly indicated that mechanical properties of poppy based boards improved with an increase panel density and adhesive ratio. Panels produced 0.55 g/cm3 density with 10% UF adhesive and 0.65 g/cm3 density with 8% UF adhesive exceed TS EN standard for MOR, MOE, IB, and SS properties.


Open Access Original Research Article

Sensory and Microbiological Quality Attributes of Laboratory Produced Tigernut Milk during Ambient Storage

O. Akoma, S. Danfulani, A. O. Akoma, M. E. Albert

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/25741

Tigernut milk produced from the seed of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) was pasteurized and treated with or without the addition of chemical preservatives (singly- 0.08% sodium benzoate, 0.02% sodium azide or in combination- 0.04% sodium benzoate + 0.01% sodium azide). These were evaluated for its microbiological and sensory quality characteristics during 12 days storage period (28±2°C). The results obtained show that the total viable counts (cfu/ml) of the tigernut milk pasteurized and treated with sodium azide was lower on days one (7.6×101), seven (1.3×101) and twelve (3.1×101) and were significantly different (p<0.05) from the total viable counts of the rest products; which ranged from 1.33×104 and above at end of the 12 days study period. Similarly, a low fungal count was observed in the tigernut milk pasteurized and treated with 0.02% sodium azide which was generally low throughout the storage period and significantly differed (p<0.05) from the other products. The results of this study has shown that the tigernut milk pasteurized and treated with sodium azide was generally preferred in all the sensory quality attributes (colour, aroma, taste and overall quality) and was significantly different (p<0.05) from the rest products. This study therefore shows that the shelf life of tigernut milk could be extended up to 12 days using combination of pasteurization and incorporation of 0.02% sodium azide.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity of Solvents Extract of Khaya senegalensis Stem Bark in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

I. U. Muhammad, A. J. Alhassan, M. S. Sule, A. Idi, A. Mohammed, A. B. El- ta’alu, M. A. Dangambo, Y. Abdulmumin

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/25986

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is among the major global public health problems and its prevalence is currently increasing at an alarming rate. According to the International Diabetes Federation, about 366 million people are living with diabetes and this figure is projected to increase to 552 million by the year 2030.

Aim: To investigate the effect of the Aqueous-methanol stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis and its solvents (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) extracts on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Methodology: A total of forty two rats were used and were grouped into seven groups of six rats each. Group I served as normal control, group II served as diabetic control, Group III rats were diabetic with alloxan and administered with standard drug (Chlorpropamide, 100 mg/kg) while Groups IV, V, VI and VII were diabetic and administered with crude extract, hexane, chloroform  and ethyl acetate extract respectively at a dose of 250 mg/kg for two weeks.

Results: The research found that the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest potency with a significant (p<0.05) decrease in blood glucose level when compared to diabetic control after three days of extract administration, it was followed by the crude extract which also shows activity at day three. Chloroform and hexane extracts showed a marked anti-hyperglycemic activity only after twelve days of extracts administration.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extract possesses the highest hypoglycemic activity.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Nimotuzumab in Combination with EGF on the Cell Cycle and Apoptotic Level of Tumor Cells

L. V. Garmanchuk, O. I. Dzhus, V. V. Nikulina, T. V. Nikolaienko, O. V. Skachkova, D. V. Shelest

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26052

Aim: The aim of study was to show the combined influence of nimotuzumab (NTM) and EGF on the proliferation, apoptosis by breast cancer cells line MCF-7.

Methodology: Cell line was cultivated in DMEM under standart conditions. Nimotuzumab and EGF was added to the cells which reached 70-80% monolayer. Flow cytometry assay was conducted to determine cell division in the phases of cell cycle and apoptosis. Cell viability was assessed by MTT test and routine calculation cells used Gor’yaev chamber test with trypan blue.

Results: Obtained results show that the efficiency of the combined effects on tumor cells of breast cancer MCF-7 antibodies to epidermal growth factor receptor – nimotuzumab, in combination with epidermal growth factor enhances the cytotoxic/cytostatic effect of NTM. According to the data, NTM appeared a cytostatic, cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects. Thus, after NTM addition to cultured cells, relative quantity of cells in phases G0 / G1 were increased in 1.2 times (P<0.05), compared to control, the percentage of apoptotic cells was 4-fold increased (P<0.01), and dead cells - almost 2-fold (P<0.05). Previous incubation of cells with EGF (5 nM) during 2 hours before adding NTM was characterized by an increase in the relative content of cells in G0 / G1 phase to 78,3±2,2%, against 73,4±1,4% NTM impact, 58,8±2,1% in the control and 38,9±0,9% for EGF influence.

There was also a redistribution of concentration of apoptotic and dead cells: reducing the percentage of apoptotic compared to the influence of the mono NTM and increase dead cells, respectively.