Open Access Short Research Article

Pathogenicity of Sudan Isolates of Bacillus spp to the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella L.

Naiema E. Gorashi, Hamid A. Dirar, Humadtto A. Elshafie, Hamid A. Hamid

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/24818

Aims: To evaluate the pathogenicity of Bacillus spp isolated from Sudan against the greater wax wax moth Galleria mellonella L. measured as mortality percentages and reduction in the amount of food consumption.

Study Design: This study is a laboratory experiment in a completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biopesticides and Biofertilizers, Environment, Natural Resources Research Institute, during 2010.

Methodology: In this study 500 ppm of liquid suspension of the dried spores-crystal mixture of 39 Sudanese Bacillus spp were prepared. This suspension was mixed with the food provided to the greater wax moth larvae. Larvae in the control were fed on food mixed with sterile distilled water only. Dead larvae were daily counted for ten days and the amount of food consumed was calculated by the end of the experiment.

Results: Up to 81% mortality was recorded by isolate Wh-5 (Bt- JX674041) compared to 12.5% in the larvae fed on untreated food. However, the lowest mortality was recorded by isolate Om-5 (Bt-JX660701), which is 21.8%. Larvae exposed to this isolate consumed greater amount of food than that consumed by larvae fed on untreated food but are not significantly different. Significant differences were observed between different isolates in the mortality percentages and in the amount of food consumed by the different isolates. The least amount of food consumed was that of larvae served food treated with isolate Po-2 (Bacillus sp-KF 305081) which was one-third of that consumed by larvae fed on untreated food. While consumption of larvae exposed to some isolates was greater than that consumed by larvae in the control.

Conclusion: This study showed the potentiality of the Sudanese Bacillus strains in controlling the greater wax moth. Detailed studies for determination of the lethal doses and specification for optimum production condition is important step for formulation, registration and commercialization.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Thermophilic Bacteria as a Source of Novel Polymers for Biotechnological Applications

Palaniappan Ramasamy, Aruna Sharmilli

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/25675

Aims: We analyzed thermotolerant bacterial isolates of thermophiles from various regions in South East coasts of India.

Study Design: A total of forty three (9.6%) thermotolerant bacterial isolates of thermophiles were secluded out of 444 isolates obtained from water samples from the Adyar River, Marina coast, Muttukadu Backwaters, Kovalam coast (India) and a prawn hatchery. In addition a novel thermotolerant Gram positive Bacillus type bacterium from the pelletized feed of fish was examined.

Results: Amongst 134 isolates that grew on E. coli FAGI agar, 23 (17%) were thermotolerant when tested at 15 psi for 30 min. Of the 72 isolates that grew on Staphylococcus Baird Parker agar 10 (13%) were thermotolerant, whilst among the 128 isolates that grew on Salmonella agar ÖNÖZ 10 (8%) were thermotolerant. In contrast, none of the 110 isolates that grew on TCBS agar (Vibrio sp.) exhibited thermotolerance, although they were isolated from the same regions as the other bacteria. The optimal temperature for the growth of most thermophiles was 45ºC, except for 9 isolates. Of the latter, 7 grew at 50ºC, one at 52ºC and one at 55ºC, respectively. There were some extremely thermotolerant bacterial isolates that exhibited consistency in profuse growth at 15 psi (121°C) for 30 min. Other isolates showed inconsistency in growth after autoclaving the cultures at 15 psi (121°C) for 30 min, and these bacteria showed development of endospores. Isolates of thermotolerant bacteria that grew on Staphylococcus Baird Parker agar and Salmonella agar ÖNÖZ were predominantly antibiotic resistant when compared with those bacterial isolates that grew on E. coli FAGI agar. A major 43 kDa toxin-protein as well as 15 other minor protein subunits was detected in the thermotolerant Bacillus sp. isolate. The proteins were toxic and caused mortality to gold fish Cyprin macrophthalmus.

Conclusions: This study documents 43 thermotolerant bacterial isolates from water samples and a Bacillus-type bacteria from fish feed in Chennai region, India and these bacterial isolates offer the potential for exploitation in biotechnological applications.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Organoleptic and Horticultural Characterization of Selected Elite Cultivars of Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) for Value Addition and Food Security in Nigeria

Godwin Michael Ubi, Kingsley Ekene Nwagu, Julie Omaghomi Jemide, Catherine James Egu, Maria Bisong Onabe, Imaobong Sunday Essien

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26420

Aims: To determine and identify the organoleptic and horticultural characteristics of elite plantains cultivars that can be explored and exploited for value addition in plantain for increased income and food security in the rain forest ecology of Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was a survey of sensory perception and evaluation of value addition in elite plantain cultivars.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out twice (September and October) in 2015 in Ugep, Yakurr Local Government Area with 30 members (15 males and 15 females) each from Young Farmers Multipurpose Cooperative Society and Toyojesam Multipurpose Cooperative Society in Ugep and with 30 members of Henshaw Town Fadama Community Association in Esierebom, Calabar south Local Government Area of Cross River State, respectively.

Methodology: Organoleptic characteristics of elite plantain cultivars were determined through sensory evaluation and perception of their value added products and subsequent completion of structured questionnaires which included a 5-point scale for measurement. Horticultural characteristics were determined using morphological markers (quantitative and qualitative traits measurement). Pulp hardness was measured with crossbow penetrometer while pulp/skin weight ratios were determined by taking the ratio of pulp weight to skin weight. The Genstat software was used for the analyses of data generated from the study.

Results: Showed that the overall acceptability percent index for plantains chips was 100% for Ebi Egome cultivar. Other cultivars such as Mgbeghe, Enugu black and Owomoh plantain also showed significantly high acceptability percent index for chips value addition. Elite cultivars such as Ikpobata (1.1%), Ogoni Red and kigwa brown showed significant low overall acceptability percent index. The results also showed that the overall acceptability percent index for plantains flour was 96.7% for Mgbeghe cultivar. Other cultivars such as Enugu black, Ejorgom and Ekumkwam cultivars also showed significant higher acceptability percent index for flour value addition. Cultivars such as Ikpobata (3.33%), Ogoni Red and kigwa brown showed significant low overall acceptability percent index. Results further showed that the overall acceptability percent index for value addition into plantains fufu was 97.6% for Ikpobata cultivar. Other cultivars such as Ebi egome, Ekumkwam, Mgbeghe, Enugu black and Bakpri plantain also showed significant high acceptability percent index for fufu value addition. Cultivars like Owomoh, Kainjen and Uhom scored below average in the overall acceptability percent index for value addition as fufu.

The overall acceptability percent index for Dodo-kido was 96.7% for Ebi egome and Kenkwa cultivars, 91.7% for Enugu black and 90% for Kainjen respectively. Ikpobata (cooking banana) and Bakpri (Mutant dwarf) cultivars scored significantly low values of 3.3% and 41.7% acceptability percent index for value addition as Dodo-kido. The overall acceptability percent index for value added roasted plantain was 100% for Ebi egome, Enugu black, Mgbeghe, Kainjen, Owomoh and Ejorgom cultivars. Cultivars such as Ikpobata and Bakpri showed significantly very low overall acceptability percent index for value addition as roasted plantain. Results of pulp hardness showed that cultivars such as Enugu black plantain, Mgbeghe and Kenkwa had the most hardened pulps with an average pulp hardness of 1.9 – 1.7 kg/cm³. The least pulp hardness of 1.3 – 1.1 kg/cm³ and 1.1 – 0.9 kg/cm³ were measured from Bakpri and Ikpobata cultivars respectively. The results also revealed that the highest pulp/skin weight ratio of 1.5 – 1.7 was obtained from Mgbeghe cultivar while the least pulp/skin weight ratio of 1.02 – 1.15 was obtained from Bakpri cultivar.

Conclusion: Though numerous cultivars of plantain exist in the region, not all can be used in value addition for commercial purpose if increase in income and food security is to be achieved. This research will therefore serve as a guide to farmers, processors, marketers and consumers alike in the choice of plantain cultivars for different value addition for commercial purposes and consumption. It will also serve a baseline information and guide to farmers and processors on the best way to add value to plantains especially where their own cultivars have comparative advantage over other cultivars in any particular value addition process. This will increase their income and ensure food security by reducing wastage and losses.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Analysis and Study of Genetic Relationships among Species of Desmodium Desv. Using RAPD Markers

Manasi Malgaonkar, S. N. Murthy, S. D. Pawar

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26713

Aims: The present study was aimed to determine the genetic relatedness and diversity among accessions of Desmodium spp using RAPD markers.

Study Design: In order to achieve the aim authentic samples of Desmodium dichotomum (Willd.) DC., Desmodium laxiflorum DC., Desmodium scorpiurus (Sw.) Desv., and Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC., were analyzed and compared to illustrate the phylogenetic relationships among them.

Place and Duration of Study: National Research Institute of Basic Ayurvedic Sciences, Pune, India June – November, 2015.

Methodology: In this study, twenty five universal RAPD primer sets for plant were used. The amplified products were compared and the phylogenetic tree was drawn using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean) by applying Jaccard’s similarity coefficient.

Results: Twenty five random primers produced 218 loci. The primers RPI 14 and RPI 17 showed highest variability; the primers RPI 2 and RPI 9 were genetically closely linked. Identification of medicinal plants by their molecular signature is a well known and highly reliable tool to assess the genetic relatedness among species.

Conclusion: There are less reports on genetic diversity studies of Desmodium, so the present study can be a baseline data for the development of robust and economic approach which may result in more inclusive ex situ conservation. 

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Monitoring of Oxygen Profile during Composting of Municipal Solid Waste

Shahid Raza, Ayesha Ameen

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26762

Oxygen is an important parameter to be monitored during the process of composting. The efficiency of aerobic composting process is mainly dependent on the amount of oxygen that is provided to windrows by proper turning. This study was designed with the main objective to monitor the oxygen profile during composting of municipal solid waste and observe variation in oxygen profile of windrows in which different inoculums were added. It was concluded from this study that the amount of oxygen % was decreased at thermophilic stage and increased at mesophilic stage. The oxygen and temperature of the compost windrow are inversely proportional to each other. The oxygen % were measured at the top of each treatment at two depths of approximately 1 and 4 feet by using OT (Oxygen/ temperature) meter.