Open Access Short Research Article

Rapid Colorimetric Determination of Methylglyoxal Equivalents for Manuka Honey

T. H. Kwok, G. Kirkpatrick, H. I. Mohd Yusof, I. Portokalakis, P. S. Nigam, R. Owusu-Apenten

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26592

Aims: Realization of a rapid colorimetric assay for monitoring levels of methylglyoxal and other dicarbonyl compounds from Manuka honey.

Methods: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) were adopted as reagents for methylglyoxal colorimetric analysis of honey at 288 or 525 nm, respectively.

Results and Discussion: NAC and DNPH produced linear responses for methylglyoxal with:(i) regression coefficient (R2) equal to 0.99 or 0.97, (ii) molar absorptivity (measure of sensitivity) equal to 287±11 or 14189±498 M-1 cm-1, (iii) a minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of 0.18 mM vs 7.3 µM, (iv) upper linearity limit of linearity (ULL) equal to 4mM or 83 µM, and (v) a day-to-day precision of 16.0 and 18.3%, respectively. Low interferences occurred with reducing sugars, glyoxal or 3-deoxy-D-glucosone. For honey with a unique manuka factor (UMF) rating 5+ to UMF18+, the net concentration of dicarbonyl compounds ranged from 1069 mg-methylglyoxal equivalence per kg (mg MeGEq /kg) to 2208 (mg MeGEq /kg) using the NAC assay. For the DNPH assay, the apparent dicarbonyl concentration was 350 to 1009-mg MeGEq /kg honey. Measures of methylglyoxal equivalences were strongly correlated with the UMF rating for honeys (R2=0.98-0.99).

Conclusion: The proposed colorimetric analysis of methylglyoxal equivalence in Manuka honey is feasible proposition. Further work is needed for method validation.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Morphometric Study on Two Groups of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Population, 1758 in Northern Region of Albania

Edit Vardhami, Anila Hoda

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/25762

This study was carried out to determine morphological differences between two brown trout (Salmo trutta Fario) populations of two Alpine rivers in Northern Albania: Cem River and Valbona River.

Fifty five single individuals of brown trout were collected from two different rivers samples included two different age groups: (2)-year-old fish, and (3)-year-old fish; and compared their morphology in order to assess intra- variation in morphometric characteristics. Nine morphometric characteristics (total length of the fish, body height, head length, head height, snout length, eye diameter, pectoral fin length, anterodorsal length, and anteroanal length) were analyzed using PCA, and the best descriptive features of populations were determined. Among the morphometric characteristics, seven factors accounted for about 80% of variation within individuals of the two populations including, head length, eye diameter, pectoral fin length, head height.

The trout populations of Cem River were easily differentiated from the ones of Valbona River according to their anterodorsal length, head height and length, and pectoral fin length.The most visible differences of the measured characteristics of the two populations were head height and pectoral fin length. It is suggested that the observed differences in the body shapes reflect the adaptation of the population in their native environmental condition of their habitats.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Different Solvent Extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli Linn.

S. Sultan, C. C. Kimaro, E. Amri

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26727

The antifungal effect of Euphorbia tirucalli L. stem and root extracts was evaluated on microbial strains of C. albicans (ATCC 9002) and A. niger. Plant parts were serially extracted by using petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous in the increasing order of their polarity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and phytochemical screening for the different plant parts and solvents used was also performed. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was assayed using the agar plate disc diffusion. The extracts inhibited the growth test organisms at different concentrations with significant higher antifungal activity revealed in high concentration than lower one. The significant antifungal activity was achieved in methanol and aqueous extracts which had mean inhibition zone of 15.33±0.88 mm and 17.33±0.33 mm respectively for C. albicans (ATCC 9002) while A. niger had 14.67±0.67 and 16.33±0.33 for methanol and aqueous respectively. The methanol and aqueous had better scores for antimicrobial activity compared to other solvents used. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 1.97 mg/ml to 2.52 mg/ml for methanol and 2.35 mg/ml to 3.44 mg/ml for aqueous extracts. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids in the extracts. The antifungal activity of the crude stem and root extracts of  revealed in this study is an indication of antifungal potential of E. tirucalli which may be employed in the management of microbial infections forms a basis for more investigation on phytochemical compounds to be useful for drug development.


Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate, Mineral Contents and Microbial Analysis of Kunu-Zaki (A Non-Alcoholic Local Beverage) in Ogun State, Nigeria

E. A. Ofudje, U. E. Okon, O. S. Oduleye, O. D. Williams

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26670

Proximate, mineral and microbial analysis of kunu drinks obtained from three different cereal sources (maize, millet and guinea corn) were carried out. The proximate parameters determined include percentage moisture, ash, protein, total solid, pH and acidity, while Fe, Zn, Ca, K and Mn concentrations were also evaluated. Maximum proximate values in millet, guinea corn and maize were obtained to be 90.7, 87.7 and 90.04% for moisture contents, 2.0, 1.9 and 1.78% for ash contents, 6.4, 10.3 and 7.8% for total solid contents, 8.4, 5.8 and 3.32% for protein contents respectively. Maximum pH values were obtained to be 4.30, 5.00 and 4.20 for millet, guinea corn and maize respectively which indicate slight acidity of the various kunu drinks. Microbial analysis revealed that four species of bacteria and fungi were isolated and identified from the kunu drinks are Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptococcus sp, while the fungi isolated are Mucor, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans. This article concludes that the enrichment of kunu-zaki with powder milk improved the nutritious values of the beverage.


Open Access Review Article

Progress in HIV-1 Prevention, Control and Treatment: Genetic Manipulation or Pharmacological Blockade of Chemokine Receptor 5?

Abdullahi Ibrahim Uba, Gonca Dilcan, Sani Sharif Usman

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26768

For Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to invade the host cells it requires human cluster of differentiation (CD4) receptor and a chemokine receptor, principally chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). Although the viral particles interact with several receptors on cell surface, a key receptor, CD4 and a co-receptor act in succession to facilitate the fusion of the viral glycoprotein with cellular membranes allowing the entry of the virus into cells. The CCR5 is the predominant co-receptor for HIV-1. HIV-1 is the most common pathogenic strain and its genetic hyper-variability makes the virus resistant to antiretroviral drug therapy. Current approaches focus on the CCR5 as the emerging target for HIV-1 control. Here, we highlight the current trend in HIV-1 control, prevention and treatment, compare the two promising approaches: Genetic manipulation of CCR5 gene and the pharmacological blockade of CCR5 using chemokine receptor antagonists.