Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Different Refused Derived Fuel Combinations with Domestc Sewage Sludge to Enhance Gross Calorific Value

Arifa Tahir, Hina Ikram, Shahid Raza

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26635

The objective of the present study is to maximize the resource value. The need to minimize disposal has prompted efforts within sewage sludge management to utilize sewage sludge as a commodity. The present study describes the refused derive fuel preparations from sewage sludge for sustainable management of sewage sludge. For the production of energy, Proximate and ultimate analyses of domestic sewage sludge were conducted. Many parameters were analyzed for the energy production from domestic sewage sludge. These parameters included moisture content, volatile matter, Ash content, fix carbon content, gross calorific value (GCV). Different RDF combinations with sewage sludge were made and their gross calorific values were assessed. The highest GCV (6790 Btu/Ib, 32.1±55.6) was obtained by RDF combination comprising sewage sludge, saw dust, oil and polythene, it was considered as best RDF combination with heating value equal to rice husk so it can be used as an alternative fuel in industry. It was concluded from this study that the environmental risks can be reduced by sustainable management of sludge and it has also a great potential as an alternative energy resource.


Open Access Original Research Article

Serum and Testicular Antioxidant Potentials of White Male Japanese Quails at Three Different Physiological Age Groups

E. O. Ewuola, V. E. Umeh

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/19515

Label Problem: Bird spermatozoa are characterised by high proportions of fatty acids which make them very vulnerable to oxidative stress due to over production of free radicals.

Aim: This study aimed at assessing the antioxidant potentials of Japanese quails at three different physiological age groups and to evaluate the correlation between antioxidant capacity in the blood and testes of white male quails at the three age groups.

Study Design: The design of the study was completely randomised design.

Place of Study: The research was carried out at the Poultry Section (Quailery Unit), Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: A study was carried out on the assessment of serum and testicular antioxidant potentials of white strains of male Japanese quails at three different physiological age groups: Pubertal (7-10 weeks), matured (14-20 weeks), and adult (≥24 week). Fifty-four white male quails were used and blood was sampled for antioxidant analysis. The animals were sacrificed, testes excised and homogenized for antioxidant determination. Total antioxidant capacity, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were evaluated in the serum and testicular homogenate.

Results: Only glutathione peroxidase in the blood was significantly (p<0.05) higher in matured and adult quails than the pubertal quails. The testicular catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity were not significantly different across the age groups. There was a positive significant correlation between serum and testicular catalase (r =0.78). Serum glutathione peroxidase was positively correlated with testicular total antioxidant capacity (r =0.20).

Conclusion: The blood glutathione peroxidase activity was optimal in the matured age group than other age groups. Antioxidant activity in the blood and testes were positively correlated.


Open Access Original Research Article

Differential Responses of Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes to Elevated Plant Density Combined with Deficit Irrigation

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, M. M. M. Atta, M. A. Ahmed, A. S. M. Younis

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26881

High plant density and full irrigation along with the use of high density-tolerant genotype would lead to maximizing maize (Zea mays L.) grain productivity per unit land area. The objective of this investigation was to match the functions of optimum plant density and adequate irrigation with the greatest maize genotype efficiency to produce the highest possible yields per unit area. Six maize inbred lines differing in tolerance to water stress and high density (D) [three tolerant (T); L-20, L-53, Sk-5, and three sensitive (S); L-18, L-28, Sd-7] were chosen for diallel crosses. Parents and crosses were evaluated in the 2013 and 2014 seasons under three plant densities: low (47,600), medium (71,400), and high (95,200) plants ha−1 and two irrigation regimes: water stress (at flowering stage) and non-stress (well watering). The T × T crosses were superior to the S × S and T × S crosses under the water stress–high D environment in most studied traits across seasons. The relationships between the six environments and grain yield per hectare (GYPH) showed near-linear regression functions for the tolerant high yielding group of hybrids with the optimum environment combination was well watering combined with high plant density (95,200 plants ha-1) and a curvilinear relationship for the sensitive low yielding group with the highest GYPH at a density of 71,400 plants ha−1 combined with well irrigation. Cross L20 × L53 gave the highest grain yield in this study under both well watering– high-D (17.05 t ha−1) and well watering–medium-D environment (16.45 t ha−1).



Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of 16S rRNA Gene of Bacillus cereus with Different Bacterial Species

Shahid Raza, Ayesha Ameen

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26524

The bacterial 16S rRNA gene increasingly used to discover the species and strains of unknown bacteria. These small 16S rRNA sequences are highly conserved regions. This study was designed to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of Bacillus cereus and compare it with the Coding DNA Sequences of different bacterial species by phylogenetic analysis. The main objective of this study is to construct a phylogram between B. cereus and other bacterial species. The CDS of these bacterial species were taken from NCBI. It was concluded from this study that the phylogram obtained from the sequences reveals that first three species are in group and closely related while other two species are out group, belongs to same ancestor but do not show very close lineage.


Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Optimization of Lipase Producing Microorganism from Degrading Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Kernel Nut Oil

Ariyo Dokun Olanrewaju, Ayodele Bosede Adetutu, Fasusi Oluwaseun Adeyinka

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26728

Aim: Most commercially useful lipases are of microbial origin. The increasing tendency of its market shows the importance to search new microbial resources to produce these enzymes.

Study Design: The study is designed at isolating lipase producing microorganism and to optimize the cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of extracellular lipase.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted between April and September, 2015 at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Palm kernel seeds were purchased from Oja Oba, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria. The oil was extracted using n-hexane by Soxhlet extractor. The oil samples were stored at room temperature (25°C±1) for three months. Microorganisms were isolated from the oil and identified every two weeks of storage. The isolated microorganisms were screened for lipolytic activity using qualitative plate assay method. The effects of pH, incubation period, substrate concentration and temperature were observed on the lipolytic activities of the microorganism that shows maximum activity. The isolate showing maximum activity was identified by following Berger’s manual.

Results: All the isolates were tested for lipase activity and only the fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. saprophyticus, Penicllium notatum and Articulosporium inflate showed sign of lipolytic activities.  Aspergillus saprophyticus showed the maximum activity. The optimum activity was produced for Aspergillus saprophyticus at 35°C, incubation period of 5 days, pH of 7 and substrate concentration of 1.5 ml.

Conclusion: This study showed palm (Elaeis guineensis) kernel oil as source of four major lipase producing microorganism namely Articosporium inflate, Aspergillus flavus. A. saprophyticus and Penicillium notatum. Optimization studies on the cultural condition for maximum lipase activity were done on the isolated Apergillus saprophyticus. The optimization improved the lipase production but further studies are needed to enhance lipase production of the organism.


Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Rheological, Microbiological and Sensory Qualities of Weaning Food Formulated from Pearl Millet, Wheat, Cowpea and Groundnut

Hauwa Hajjagana Laminu, Modu Sheriff, Babagana Modu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/14917

Weaning foods were formulated in a cereal-legume combination using pearl millet, wheat, cowpea and groundnut. The pearl millet was fermented to produce “Akamu”, the wheat was germinated while the cowpea and groundnut were roasted separately. The weaning foods were formulated as follows: Pearl millet (60%)-cowpea (20%)-wheat (10%)-groundnut (10%) (PCWG); Pearl millet (60%)-cowpea (30%)-wheat (10%) (PCW). Pearl millet (60%)-groundnut (30%)-wheat (10%) (PGW). Significant difference (p≤0.05) was observed in grain hardness of pearl millet (3.00±0.01), wheat (4.03±0.05), cowpea (2.96±0.05) and groundnut (0.93±0.05). Significant differences (p≤0.05) were also observed in the 100 grain volume, 100 grain weight and density of the cereals and grains. A decrease in pH with a concomitant increase in Titratable Acidity (TA) was observed during 72 hours fermentation of pearl millet. Low apparent viscosity PCWG (1441.66±1.14 cps), PCW (1432.66±1.36 cps) and PGW (1410±1.15 cps) were observed in the three complementary weaning food blends. Low Water Absorption Capacity (WAC) for PCWG (0.86±0.08 g/g), PCW (1.05±0.12 g/g) and PGW (0.92±0.14 g/g) were also observed. Predominant microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Micrococus lateaus and Streptococcus lactics) isolated during the production of ‘‘Akamu” from Pearl millet shows that the weaning foods are free from pathogenic microorganisms. The result of the sensory evaluation indicated that in terms of colour, odour, taste and texture there were no significant differences except in the overall acceptability where the weaning food PCWG was preferred to PCW and PGW.