Open Access Original Research Article

In Silico Analysis and Comparison of Alpha Tubulin Gene with Other Tubulin Families

Hira Mubeen, Muhammad Waseem Shoaib, Shahid Raza

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26641

Microtubules are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulins and performs many diverse functions. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are members of the tubulin superfamily. Studies shown the existence of genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families in all eukaryotes.

The two main classes includes alpha and beta which mainly represents the tubulin family. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes, which are highly conserved among species. The selected gene encodes alpha tubulin which belongs to its associated protein superfamily. All tubulin genes differ in configuration just because of few amino acid substitutions. The study was performed to analyze the alpha tubulin (TUBA8) gene and its associated protein by using various bioinformatics tools. The gene was matched in HGNC against its particular entry to obtain the HGNC gene ID. The variant analysis shown 3 coding exons, 276 genetic variants and few UTR regions at 3’end of gene. Protein domains were analyzed by protein InterPro domain analysis software.


Open Access Original Research Article

Bioremediating Potentials of Marine Mercury-Resistant Bacteria on Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons Components of Bonny Light Crude Oil

B. O. Uba, E. L. Okoye, I. E. Chukwurah

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27328

Aims: To evaluate the potentials of marine mercury-resistant bacteria isolated from the coastal water of Niger Delta region of Nigeria and examine their ability to tolerate, utilize and biodegrade Bonny light crude oil.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Onne light flow terminal sea port located in Eleme Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria between August 2011 and February 2013.

Methodology: The techniques employed for growth and biodegradation studies were total viable count, optical density and gas chromatographic analysis. Several bacterial genera capable of growing at 50 mg/l and higher concentrations of mercury were isolated and include: Acetobacterium, Arthrobacter, Planococcus, Brevibacterium, Alteromonas, Enterococcus and Cupriavidus

Results: The result of total viable count, absorbance at 520 nm (OD520nm) and changes in Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations ranged from 5.88 - 6.45, 5.70 – 6.39 and 5.80 - 6.27 log10cfu/ml; 1.170 - 10.740, 0.880 - 10.210 and 0.460 - 10.090; and 64.779 mg/l - 29.777 mg/l, 128.103 mg/l‑74.107 mg/l and 82.085 mg/l‑68.809 mg/l respectively after 28 days of incubation period for the consortium (Acetobacterium woodii MRB I, Arthrobacter globiformis MRB VII and Cupriavidus necator MRB X), positive control (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Cupriavidus necator MRB X. Thus, Cupriavidus necator MRB X showed promising potentials in the bioremediation  of crude oil polluted environments and was almost comparable with standard strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa but the consortium were comparatively better and potent PAHs degraders of the Bonny light crude oil.

Conclusion: This study has proved the bioremediating potentials of Mercury-resistant bacteria; therefore they could be used as potent bioremediating agents on Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons since their removal has been a challenge to environmental management.


Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Triticale and Wheat Performance under Dry Land Conditions on the Basis of Variations in Agronomic and Morphological Traits

Roghiye Fioj, Bahram Heidari, Ali Dadkhodaie

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/25726

Aims: Drought is the most important environmental stresses in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. Triticale offers ample genetic variation for the improvement of its productivity under limited water conditions. In order to investigate triticale and wheat potential under dry land conditions, response of twenty five wheat, triticale (TRT) and rye genotypes was assayed by scoring agronomic and morphological traits in the field in 2013-2014 growing season.

Study Design: A randomized complete block design with three replications was used to evaluate response of genotypes to dry land farming. Four 3-m long rows with row spacing of 25­ cm were used for sowing seeds.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, during 2013-2014 growing season.

Methodology: Two types of traits consisted of morphological and yield related components were measured at the vegetative stage and grain set periods. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance, factor analysis and clustering methods. Descriptive statistics were also calculated.   

Results: Two rye genotypes had lower awn length (AWL) compared with triticale and most of wheat genotypes. Grain number per spike ranged from 30.8 to 55.9 in triticale and from 27.0 to 36.8 in wheat. Triticale had higher harvest index (HI) than wheat. HI varied between 19.0% (in TRT826) and 38.0% (TRT825) in triticale. The magnitude of HI in wheat was from 15.6% to 28.1%. TRT816 (10.81 g) and TRT822 (9.48 g) had the highest and TRT804 (3.12 g) had the lowest grain yield (GY) among triticale genotypes. Wheat cultivars were more affected by drought stress condition and had considerably lower grain yield compared with triticale. The highest GY in wheat was found in Shahpasand (2.81 g) which was lower than GY in most of triticales. Results of factor analysis indicated that first factor that explained 39.3% of the total variation had high and positive coefficients for spike yield (SY), biological yield (BY) and grain yield. In cluster analysis, 25 genotypes were classified into 5 main groups. Highest BY, SY, GY and HI means were found in cluster 5. Overall, results showed that triticale performed better than wheat in view of harvest index, grain yield and its components. Results also showed that variations between genotypes are valuable for breeding programs under dry land conditions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Investigation of Sophorolipid Biosurfactants Produced by Candida and Pleurotus Species Using Waste Oils and Rice Bran and Their Oilfield Benefits

E. F. Ahuekwe, B. E. Okoli, O. H. Stanley, B. Kinigoma

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27467

Conventional chemical surfactants applications usually linked with environmental unfriendliness and toxicity are associated with high production costs resulting from fluctuations in oil prices and thermal energy requirements. Sophorolipid biosurfactants can potentially be implemented with a remarkably low operating cost. Besides economic interest, sophorolipids and their derivatives have shown promise as emulsifiers, antimicrobials, surfactants and a source of specialty chemicals possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic structural moieties that impart surface tension reduction capacities, thus, facilitating microbial hydrocarbon and heavy metal emulsification and uptake. In this study, sophorolipids produced by Candida and Pleurotus species respectively isolated and harvested from oil contaminated soils from Ukwa West LGA of Abia State were investigated. Mineral salt media supplemented with different hydrophilic (rice bran, spent mushroom substrate and cassava peels) and hydrophobic (food industry waste oil) renewable wastes as sources of carbon were tested on nine (9) of the potential isolates to select the best medium and organism that maximized sophorolipids production. This was supported by the emulsification index after 24 hours (E24), FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. All isolates were subjected to biosurfactants production screening, to find the best sophorolipid producer among the available strains. Results showed that isolate CP1SP6c, a hydrocarbon utilizing fungi (HUF) exhibiting β-haemolysis and 92.4% microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon (MATH), gave the maximum E24 of 69.2%, within 6 days of incubation on media fortified with rice bran and food industry waste oil in a rotary shaker. Further studies on CP1SP6c were carried out to assess the interaction of the produced sophorolipids with porous media in core flooding experiments as a tertiary recovery technique. The results showed high promises of using this bio-product in hydrocarbon recovery, where 12.3% of crude oil was recovered after injecting the culture supernatant. An additional recovery of 15.7% of residual oil was observed after concentrating the sophorolipid solution.


Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Optimization of Alkaline Protease Production Using Isolated Strain by Submerged Fermentation

Tapasi Polley, Uma Ghosh

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27404

Aim: Optimization of alkaline protease production using a newly isolated strain Alternaria sp. by submerged fermentation. The production of inexpensive proteolytic enzymes not only solves environmental problems, but also promotes the economic value and utilization of waste treatment.

Study Design: Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the environmental parameters to enhance protease production.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food technology and Biochemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India between July 2014 and September 2014.

Methodology: The isolated culture Alternaria sp. was grown on modified Czapek-Dox media. The statistical design RSM was utilized to optimize the parameters: Volume of medium, temperature, time, age of inoculum and agitation showed significant influence on enzyme production. The data on alkaline protease production was processed by Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA). The mathematical relationship of independent variables and second order polynomial equation was used for the analysis of protease production.

Results: RSM was employed to optimize environmental factors for production of alkaline protease. The highest specific activity was obtained using 40 ml of medium, inoculated at 30°C for 9 days at 120 rpm using 7 days old culture. However the maximum biomass production was obtained with 40 ml medium, 30°C temperature, 5 days of fermentation, 140 rpm agitation using 7 days old culture and it was 7.76 mg/ml which was very close to 7.78 mg/ml predicted by Box-Behnken design (RSM).

Conclusion: The specific activity which was found to be 200 U/mg optimized by one-factor at a time, was later on calculated as 615 U/mg optimizing the same with the statistical approach. Thus it can be concluded that the optimization of Alkaline protease production gave significant higher specific activity when carried out with the process parameters non-individually.