Open Access Short Research Article

Histochemical GUS Expression of Cotton SPS Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco

Nadia Iqbal, Ammara Masood, Aftab Bashir, Muhammad Asif

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27071

Sucrose phosphate synthase has role in synthesis of sucrose and cellulose in higher plants. A 2 kb cotton sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) promoter and its 1.5 kb deletion fragment were cloned in plant expression vector pGA482 respectively. Both promoter fragments were transformed stably in tobacco through Agrobacterium mediated transformation. SPS promoter was found to express in tobacco plants. Full length 2 kb promoter showed high expression as compared to 1.5 kb fragment. The study revealed that SPS promoter was active in heterologous system and may be used to transform transgenes in dicots.


Open Access Original Research Article

Diesel Oil Degradation Using Biosurfactant Produced by Pseudomonas sp.

Harleen Kaur, Samiya Khan, Sanjay Gupta, Nidhi Gupta

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27376

Aim: To evaluate the effect of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas sp. GBS.5 on degradation of diesel oil.

Study Design: Shake flask studies were carried out with alkanes and diesel oil.

Place and Duration of Study: Deptt of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida, from June 2014 – 2015.

Methodology: Shake flask studies were carried out to study the degradation of alkanes and diesel oil. The degradation was studied using Gas Chromatography.

Results: Biosurfactant was extracted by growing Pseudomonas sp. cells on minimal media with oil after 168 hrs. The production was confirmed by various qualitative and quantitative assays. The biosurfactant extracted was used to study the degradation of alkanes (n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, n-heptadecane, n-docosane) and oil. It was observed that biosurfactant enhanced the degradation rate of all alkanes except n-docosane. Similar effect was also observed on the degradation of alkanes in presence of oil.

Conclusion: The results indicated that the bacterial isolate Pseudomonas sp. strain GBS.5 exhibit potential for bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils. GC analysis led to the identification and degradation of certain long chain alkanes degraded by Pseudomonas sp. GBS.5 associated with biosurfactant production. Biosurfactants produced by the oil degrading bacteria facilitate the uptake of oil hydrocarbons by bacterial cells thereby improving the degradation of the hydrocarbons which leads to a keen interest on these microbial products as alternatives to chemical surfactants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Useful Heterosis and Combining Ability in Maize (Zea mays L.) Agronomic and Yield Characters under Well Watering and Water Stress at Flowering

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, M. M. M. Atta, M. A. Ahmed, A. S. M. Younis

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27507

Selecting superior parents for hybrid combinations and studying the nature of genetic variation are prerequisites for starting a successful breeding program. The main  objective  of  the present study  was  to assess performance, useful heterosis and combining  ability  among  maize  inbreds  under optimum and drought  conditions. Six inbreds and their diallel F1's were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 seasons in two experiments, one under well watering (WW) and one under water stress (WS) at flowering. Data combined across seasons revealed that the inbreds L53, L20 and Sk5 and the crosses L20 × L53, L53 x Sk5 and L53 × Sd7 under WW and WS had the highest grain yield/plant (GYPP) and its components. The largest average heterobeltiosis (236.58%) was shown under WS by GYPP. Maximum GYPP heterobeltiosis reached 736.0% by the cross L28 x Sd7 under WS.  (non-additive) mean squares for leaf angle (LANG), ears/plant (EPP), rows/ear (RPE), 100-kernels weight (100 KW), kernels/plant (KPP) and barren stalks (BS) under WW and WS, days to anthesis (DTA) under WW and anthesis silking interval (ASI) under WS. On the contrary, the magnitude of SCA was higher than GCA mean squares for ear height (EH), kernels/row (KPR) and GYPP, under WW and WS, DTA under WS and ASI under WW. The best inbreds in GCA  effects for GYPP and all yield components were L53 followed by L20 and Sk5. The best crosses in SCA  effects for the same traits were Sk5 × L18 followed by L20 × L53 and L28 × Sd7 under WW and WS. Mean performance of inbreds and crosses was significantly correlated with GCA and SCA effects, respectively for most studied traits under WW and WS.





Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Palm Oil Fractions on the Aortic Cell of Wistar Rats: A Pilot Study of the Histochemical Evaluation

Samsudeen G. Ojuolape, Quadri O. Mojeed, M. Sanni Muritala

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26974

Aims: To investigate the effect (s) of palm oil fractions {Palm Olein (PO) & Palm Stearin (PS)} on the aortic cell of Wistar rats.

Study Design: The histological and cholesterol blood sample examinations were done on the aorta of the Wistar rats, to investigate the effects of the palm oil on the animals.

Methodology: Twelve (12) male Wistar rats were procured from the animal house of the University of Ilorin, four (4) animals in each group A (control), B (PO) and C (PS), and the animals were about of the same age. The experiment was carried out within the period of eight (8) weeks with 5ml of respective palm oil and rat pellets given to each animal in their different groups (B and C) three times in a day orally, and group A  was fed with rat pellets only. A day after the 8th week, the animals were sacrificed using cervical dislocation under chloroform anaesthesia, after which blood samples were collected from the orbital sinus of the experimental rat, different levels of cholesterol were tested for; Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) using Randox Lipid kits. The aorta were extracted and fixed in a 10% formalin for 24 hours before preparing for histological examinations.

Results: Histologically, there was no disarrangement in the organization of the three (3) layers of the tissue (tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventia) in all the three (3) groups, except in the PS group, where a distortion at the adventia layer was observed, but,this could not be really suggested to be a deposition of any kind. The PO group was observed to have higher TC and LDL-C, also, high TC and LDL-C were found in PS group as against the values obtained in group A. This suggested that, PO and PS did not affect the TC, LDLC or HDLC levels of rats in any way in this study. However, PO group had 139.00±7.87 mg/dl of TC and 55.50±3.87 mg/dl of LDL-C results as against 90.25±3.59 mg/dl of TC and 18.50±2.65 mg/dl of LDL-C in group A.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that, Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) in the aortic cell of Palm Olein (PO) treated group could be a factor that brought about the palmitic acids effects and the same effect was observed in Total Cholesterol (TC) of PS-treated group. Both Palm Olein (PO) and Palm Stearin (PS) have little effects on the aortic tissue of the animals, although, the effect has never been reported to be detrimental (histologically and histochemically).


Open Access Original Research Article

Multimetal Resistance Potential of Indigenous Bacterial Genera of Sea Shore Soils of Andaman Islands of India

Pardita Dutta, Debarati Halder, Malini Basu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27453

Aims: Isolation and characterization of heavy metal tolerant microorganism from sea shore soil of Andaman Islands (India).

Study Design:

(a) Sample collection and isolation of multimetal resistant bacteria.

(b) Relative growth of bacterial isolates in presence of heavy metal.

(c) Characterization of bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivity profile.

(d) Capability of the production of extracellular enzyme(s).

Place and Duration of Study: Sea shore soils were collected from Ross I, Ross II, Port Blair and Havelock of Andaman Islands (India) with seasonal variation.

Methodology: Soil samples were analyzed for physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics. Bacteria isolated from sea shore soil were tested for their ability to tolerate cadmium, chromium, zinc, nickel, copper, cobalt, manganese, mercury, lead and arsenic in their growth medium and their relative growth in the presence of heavy metals determined. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done for different antibiotics with different concentrations. Biochemical tests were done to observe the diversity of the isolates. Degree of NaCl tolerance and extracellular enzyme production of selected isolates were done.

Results: The abundance of heavy metals in the sea shore soil are Pb>Zn>Cd>Cu>Mn>Ni=Co>Cr. The relative growth of the bacterial isolates were different for each strain, but the general order of resistance to the metals supplemented media was found to be as Pb> As> Mn> Zn > Cu > Cd> Ni and toxic effects of these metals increased with increasing concentration; however most of the isolates were sensitive to Hg, Cr and Co. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed varying results. Additionally, it was found that the strains were sensitive to four of the antibiotics tested. Biochemical characterization was indicative of the diverse microbial flora having multimetal resistance on one hand; on the other hand, they are potent producers of many useful enzymes like amylase, protease, lipase, catalase, urease, phosphatase etc., and are moderately halophilic.

Conclusion: The bacterial isolates from saline soil are of interest as they exhibit profound heavy metal tolerance and hence may be promising for bioremediation purpose and their molecular mechanisms for resistance to multiple metals needs further speculation.


Open Access Review Article

Euclinostomum heterostomum (Rud., 1809) Travassos, 1928 (Trematodes: Clinostomidae: Euclinostominae): A New Record in Avian Host Little Cormorant (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) of Pakistan

Muhammad Moosa Abro, Ali Murtaza Dharejo, Muhammad Munif Khan, Nadir Ali Birmani

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27782

Present report is part of study carried out on helminths of little cormorants of ecological famous District Sanghar of southern province of Pakistan. Present study collected 26 trematodes having stout, linguiform, fleshy body, sub-terminal oral sucker, strongly muscular ventral sucker, 7-12 cecal diverticula, asymmetrical anterior and posterior testes, round cirrus sac and small vitellaria. These were collected from esophagus of host bird and identified as Euclinostomum heterostomum (Rud., 1809) Travassos, 1928. This trematode is recorded for the first time from little cormorant in Pakistan. However, reports are available on genus Euclinostomum of fish and other birds of Pakistan.