Open Access Original Research Article

Manuka Honey-induced Cytotoxicity against MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells is Correlated to Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Power

I. Portokalakis, H. I. Mohd Yusof, D. F. Ghanotakis, P. Singh Nigam, R. Owusu-Apenten

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27899

Aims: To investigate the relations between total polyphenols content, antioxidant power and Manuka honey cytotoxicity towards MCF-7 cells.

Study Design: In vitro study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, University of Crete in partnership with the School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, 09/ 2014 – 09/ 2015.

Methodology: Manuka honey (UMF 5+,10+, 15+ and 18+) were examined for total phenols content using the Folin-Ciocalteu method with results expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents per kg honey (mg GAE/kg). Antioxidant power was evaluated using the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power “FRAP” method and expressed as mg GAE/kg. Honey cytotoxicity was examined with MCF-7 breast cancer cells cultured with RPMI 1640 supplemented with charcoals stripped serum and viability was monitored using the MTT assay.

Results: The total phenols content for Manuka honey ranged from 1367±152 mg GAE/kg for UMF 5+ honey to 2358 ±79 mg GAE/ kg for UMF 18+ honey. The antioxidant power for Manuka honey ranged from 170±22 mg GAE/kg for UMF 5+ honey rising to 266±21 mg GAE/kg for UMF 18+ honey. Manuka honey showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards MCF-7 cells after 24 hrs. treatment. The concentration of honey which produces 50% inhibitory activity (IC50) ranged from 4.7% (w/v) for UMF 5+ honey to 2.2% (w/v) for UMF 18+ honey. The cytotoxicity of Manuka honey was highly correlated with, values for the total phenols content (R2=0.99) and antioxidant power (R2=0.95) of Manuka.

Conclusion: Manuka honey is cytotoxic to MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro and the effects are correlated with the total phenols content and antioxidant power.


Open Access Original Research Article

Computational Analysis of Genomic Regions of Human Insulin Receptor Gene

Shahid Raza, Hira Mubeen

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26715

Insulin plays an essential role in metabolic control of multiple cellular processes. A number of DNA sequences that regulate transcription of the insulin gene have already been identified. The regulation of carbohydrates and fats can be operated by insulin specific receptor molecules. Previously, insulin was found to be a polypeptide in 1928 with its amino acid sequence identified in 1952. In fact it was considered as a dipeptide, containing A and B chains respectively, linked by disulphide bridges. The insulin receptor plays a critical role both in directing insulin to specific target tissues and in initiating the response of these tissues to the hormone. Hence, the study was performed to analyze the insulin gene receptor associated with regulation of various mechanism and also with several insulin deficiency syndromes. Identification of protein domains from PROSITE, Pfam and UniPROt reveals various conserved regions associated with insulin receptor gene (INSR). For this, various bioinformatics tools and software’s were used.


Open Access Original Research Article

Fungal Contaminants of Selected Commonly Used Spices in Tanzania

Gladness E. Temu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27600

Fifty samples of sixteen spices commonly used in Tanzania were collected randomly from different local markets around Dar es Salaam and fungal contaminants determined using standard microbiological procedures. Forty nine filamentous fungi from 7 genera namely; Aspergillus, Fusarium, Rhizomucor, Rhizopus, Lichtheimia, Cladosporium and Penicillium were encountered. Further characterization of some fungi using nucleotide sequencing of the 5.8S-ITS rRNA gene was done and their phylogeny inferred using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA). The fungi isolates were identified as Lichtheimia ramosa, L. corymbifera, Rhizomucor pusillus, R. tauricus, A. aculeatinus, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. tubingensis, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. nomius. Red chill had high level of fungal contamination (18.37%) followed by ginger (14.28%) while curry powder and coriander seeds were less contaminated (2.08%). These results give baseline information on fungal contamination in spices. Proper spices management that will minimize risks of fungal contamination and their metabolites at all stages from planting, harvesting, processing, packaging, transportation, handling and storage is recommended to avoid health risks to consumers. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Specificity Studies on Phospholipase A2 Inhibitor from Echis ocellatus Serum

F. A. Adamude, M. Bashir, P. O. Yusuf, A. J. Nok

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26952

The most effective and acceptable therapy for snakebite victims is the immediate administration of antivenin following envenomation which is limited by problems of hypersensitivity reactions in sensitive individuals and its inability to resolve the local effects of the venom. In this study, we report the specificity studies of Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) Inhibitor isolated from Echis ocellatus Serum (PIES) towards snake venom neurotoxic PLA2 and non-toxic mammalian secretory PLA2. Membrane stabilizing and protective ability of PIES was recorded by its potential to reduce hemolysis due to venom PLA2 from 81.20% to 35.30% in vitro. Coagulant potentials of PIES were also seen in its ability to restore plasma coagulation time to less than a minute. Interestingly, PIES does not affect the enzymatic activity of mammalian secretory PLA2 but strongly inhibits PLA2 activity of Echis ocellatus (carpet viper) in this study. The present study shows that PIES holds a good promise for the development of novel antivenin drug in future.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Biochar and Rhizobium Inoculation on Selected Soil Chemical Properties, Shoot Nitrogen and Phosphorus of Groundnut Plants (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Sokoto State, Nigeria

S. A. Yusif, I. Muhammad, N. G. Hayatu, M. Haliru, M. A. Mohammed, A. M. Hussain, A. Y. Fardami

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27300

The research was carried out to determine the effects of biochar and rhizobium inoculation on selected soil chemical properties, shoot N and P of groundnut plant. Two factors were used for this experiment; Biochar and rhizobium inoculation. Biochar was applied at the rate of 20 t ha-1, 10 t ha-1 and 0 t ha-1 while rhizobium was inoculated to groundnut seeds (inoculated [+] and un-inoculated [-]). The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design and replicated 3 times. Means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at 5% level of significance. The results showed that 20 t ha-1 of biochar significantly (p<0.05) produced higher values of soil pH, OC, N, available P and Ca, than 10 t ha-1 and 0 t ha-1. No significant differences were observed in shoot P among biochar application rates. Rhizobium inoculation had significantly (p<0.05) increase the number of shoot N, soil N, P, K and Mg when compared with un-inoculated plants. It is recommended that 20 t ha-1 should be used for improvement of soil chemical properties while inoculation with rhizobia may be more effective in the presence of biochar due to the habitat offered by the biochar.