Open Access Minireview Article

Nanobiomaterial: Hybrid Gold and Silver Nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs) as Non-viral Gene Delivery Vehicles

Kirti Rani

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27734

Hybrid gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs) are known as chemically or biologically engineered nanomaterials that have size dimension in the range of 1-100 nm. Nanosized materials are exhibited various novel properties like site-specific reactivity, greater sensing capability and increased mechanical strength which offered their easy, safe, fast, efficient and cost effective synthesis. Previously, various nanosized formulations and dispersions of conjugated or hybrid gold and silver metals have been proposed for targeted drug delivery by well known pharmaceutical companies. These hybrid nanobiomaterials have also been used in tissue engineering, protein detection, cancer therapy, multicolour optical coding for biological assay at genome level. Recently, nonviral gene therapy is going to be proposed as a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of genetic, metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. Their nonviral approaches has been found to be an excellent and safe alternative gene transferring vehicles to the popular viral vectors due to having significant favourable properties such as non-immunogenicity, low toxicity, and potential tissue specificity and effective targeted drug delivery. As well as, these hybrid nonviral mediated clinical and genetic approaches have been tested in preclinical studies and human clinical trials over the last decade which may prove more potent drug and safe gene/drug/nucleic acid delivery carriers for combating various types of cancers and epidemics worldwide. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Degradation of Curcubita pepo Seeds Oil by Aspergillus niger

Peter Michael Dass, Umar Usman Modibbo, Ayodele Akinterinwa, Munyal Yusuf

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27821

Vegetable oil was extracted from Curcubita pepo seeds in n-hexane using Soxhlet extractor at 60°C. The physico-chemical parameters of the purified oil was analysed according to American Oil Chemist Society method. The physico-chemical of oil gave the free fatty acids of 0.83 mgKOH/g, Iodine Value of 97.96 I2 /100 g, viscosity of 4.13 µ, refractive index of 1.46, density of 0.91 g/cm3 and 1.4 mgKOH/g, 50.34 I2 /100 g, 3.17 µ, 0.92, 0.602 g/cm3 for un-degraded and degraded oil respectively. The Fourier Transform Infra Red and Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectroscopy of the oil were determined before and after four weeks of inoculation and incubation with the microorganisms. It was observed that Aspergillus niger partly degrade the oil in four weeks of incubation. The decrease in viscosity of oil as the time of incubation increases was observed. The appearance of absorption peaks corresponding to hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxylic functional groups in the spectrogram suggested the formation of compounds such as alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters and nitrates as biodegradation metabolites. Mass Spectroscopy provided the mass fragments of the possible components formed during the degradation of the oil to include: heptadecanioc acid, octadecanoic acid and oleic acids. The formation of three fatty acids was viewed to be due the oil high stability to this fungal attack thereby alluding to thesubstantial application of the Curcubita pepo seeds oil in areas such as soap and detergent as well as usage cooking and or lubricants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Performance, Apparent Nutrient Digestibility and Cost Benefit of West African Dwarf Goats Fed Dietary Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal

P. C. Jiwuba, K. Ikwunze, S. I. Ume, N. O. Nsidinanya

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27390

Aims: To determine the performance, apparent nutrient digestibility and cost benefit of West African Dwarf goats fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets.

Study Design: Completely randomized design and Latin square design.

Place and Duration of Study: At the Sheep and Goat unit of the Teaching and Research farm of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, between November 2013 and February 2014.

Methodology: 36 West African Dwarf Goats were used for this study. Four diets were formulated such that diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 contain MOLM at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively. Other ingredients remained constant for the four diets. The diets were offered to matured goats, which were randomly divided into four (4) groups of 9 goats each, with three goats constituting a replicate in a completely randomized design pattern. Each animal received the designated diet on 3% body weight basis in addition to Panicum maximum.

Results: Results showed that average daily feed intake differed significantly (P<0.05) with goats fed 15% MOLM diets having the highest intake (495.19 g/d). Similarly average daily weight gain was (p<0.05) highest (46.00 g/d) for T4 animals. Average daily dry matter intake also differed significantly (P<0.05) and the values ranged between 395.14 to 448.69 g/day and increased with increasing levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal. Feed conversion ratio differed significantly (P<0.05) and was however best for T4 animals (10.77). Apparent nutrient digestibility coefficient; dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and ash differed significantly (P<0.05) for the treatment groups with diet T4 having relatively better values. Cost benefit was influenced (p<.0.5) with T4 animals having better income (2.05) on investment.

Conclusions: Diet T4 promoted the best relative performance among the treatment diets and is therefore recommended for production of West African Dwarf goat.


Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Cultural Conditions for Production of Extracellular Polysaccharide by Halomonas xianhensis SUR308 Using Weighted Response Surface Methodology

J. Biswas, G. Dutta, A. K. Paul

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27839

Optimization of different physico-chemical and cultural parameters such as temperature, pH, incubation time and inoculum dose along with variation of NaCl, glucose and casein hydrolysate concentrations were carried out in the present investigation for the enhancement of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production by Halomonas xianhensis SUR308. Weighted response surface methodology (WRSM) was applied to study the interactive effects of these seven significant variables on EPS production by the isolate. A second order polynomial regression model for weighted response of the growth (O. D. at 540 nm) and production of EPS (g/L) was used to analyze the experimental data following the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Such analysis showed that the model was very significant (p < 0.05). Interaction among glucose, NaCl and pH was found to be most effective for growth and EPS production by H. xianhensis SUR308. The estimated optimum conditions of these variables obtained by using desirability function were 3.49% glucose, 2.5% NaCl and pH 6.8. Under such conditions the isolate produced 7.8 g/L of EPS which justify the predicted value (7.45 g/L) of EPS production in WRSM.


Open Access Original Research Article

Identification, Analysis and Comparison of Human Alpha Tubulin Gene

Hira Mubeen, Muhammad Waseem Shoaib, Shahid Raza

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26691

Tubulins are composed of filaments or thread like structures called as microtubules which plays an important role in structural composition of cytoskeleton. Tubulin comprise of various types and subtypes. They belong to family of globular proteins.α-tubulin’s are considered as a multigene family in various species. Sequence analysis of human, mouse and rat α-tubulin has enabled an updated nomenclature to be studied. Analysis of orthologues helps to study evolutionary relationships and to identify the sequence homology among all genetic variants. Researchers can predict various structural elements and can overcome many gene mapping problems.

Purpose: To study and compare the evolutionary relationships, homologs, orthologues and putative protein domains.

Materials and Methods: Sequence analysis of human, mouse, and rat α-tubulin gene has enabled an updated nomenclature to be studied. Analysis of orthologues helps to study evolutionary relationships and to identify the sequence homology among all genetic variants.

Results: Comparative study was performed by using number of different bioinformatics tools and software’s like BLAST, Ensemble and Interpro. The nucleotide sequence of 1353 bp was retrieved from Genbank NCBI. The sequence was rich with many coding regions. The mRNA transcript was analyzed with 3 different splice variants. Various protein domain were analyzed which belongs to superfamily of TUBA3C gene associated protein.

Conclusion: The analysis of TUBA3C gene and protein domain helped to predict the 3D structure of related proteins. The homology and similarity studies can help to predict the evolutionary relationships.