Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Three Ornamental Plant Species for Their Phytoextraction Potentials of Cadmium Polluted Soil

N. Amadi, N. Amadi, F. B. G. Tanee

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27744

Aim: A comparative study of three ornamental plants species in the remediation of cadmium polluted soil was investigated.

Duration and Place of Study: A 12 week phytoextraction trial was conducted at the Centre for Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcourt.

Study Design: 20 polythene bags (5 kg loamy soil each) were arranged in 4 batches (designated as A, B C and D) of 5 replicates each. Each bag was artificially polluted with 100 mg of cadmium solution (that is, 20 mg kg-1). Two seedlings of Moringa oleifera, Polyalthia longifolia and Aloe vera were transplanted from the nursery into batch A, B, C, respectively (phytorextraction treatments) while batch D had no planting (control). 

Results: Moringa oleifera, Polyalthia longifolia, and Aloe vera showed 43.1%, 47.0% and 41.3% reductions of Cd in phytoextracted soil, respectively. The transfer factor was in the order of Aloe vera > Moringa oleifera > Polyalthia longifolia while translocation factors indicate that cadmium were largely retained in roots of Polyalthia longifolia and Aloe vera and in the shoot of Moringa oleifera. The suitability of the plants for phytoextraction was in the order of Moringa oleifera > Polyalthia longifolia > Aloe vera.

Conclusion: The three plants are suitable for the remediation of cadmium contaminated soils. Based on the experimental results, Moringa oleifera can be classified as Cd accumulator plant while Polyalthia longifolia and Aloe vera are Cd excluder plants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Biodiversity and Distribution of wild Mushrooms in the Southern Region of Bangladesh

S. N. Rashid, F. M. Aminuzzaman, M. R. Islam, M. Rahaman, M. I. Rumainul

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27711

A survey was conducted to study the biodiversity as well as the distribution of wild mushrooms, which naturally grow, in different localities, at different seasons, in the southern region of Bangladesh. A total 24 species of mushrooms belonging to 17 genera and 14 families were identified. Those mushrooms were collected between July and October, 2013 and 2014, accordingly from 16 sub-districts of Barisal, Patuakhali, Borguna, Pirojpur, Jhalokhathi districts, which situated in the southern region of Bangladesh. The identified genera were viz., Amanita sp., Agaricus sp., Ganoderma sp., Armillaria sp., Coprinus sp., Cortinarius sp., Hebeloma sp., Mycena sp., Lepiota sp., Lycoperdon sp., Macrolepiotia sp., Daldinia sp., Tuber sp., Volvariella sp., Steccherinum sp., Hypholoma sp. and Coprinellus sp. Moreover, the maximum frequency of occurrence in this survey was exhibited by Ganoderma applanatum, Amanita vaginata and Agaricus silvicola (18.75%), whereas, the maximum density was recorded for Coprinus silvaticus (48.83%). The collected specimens were deposited to SAU herbarium of mushroom flora (SHMF).


Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate, Vitamin, Mineral and Anatomical Studies on Vitex chrysocarpa Planch ex Benth. (Verbenaceae)

C. V. Ilodibia, E. Eze, M. U. Chukwuma, E. E. Akachukwu, N. A. Igboabuchi, R. N. Adimonyemma

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/28301

Proximate, vitamin, mineral and anatomical studies were carried out on various parts (Leaf, stem, root and petiole) of Vitex chrysocarpa using standard techniques. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed in data analysis. The proximate study indicated that the various parts contained all the nutrients assayed but in varied quantities. Crude protein and fat were highest in the leaf (6.93+0.00% and 5.06+0.00% respectively). Crude fibre, ash and moisture were highest in the root (10.91+0.05%, 10.32+0.66%, and 29.23+0.01% respectively). The result revealed also that the various parts contained vitamins and minerals in varied proportions. The leaf contained significantly the highest proportions of zinc, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A and vitamin C (0.38±0.00 mg/100 g, 24.91±0.01 mg/100 g, 10.18±0.00 mg/100 g, 45.06+ 3.24 µg/g, and 13.81 + 3.09 mg/100 g, respectively). Anatomical study showed uniseriate epidermis, non-glandular trichomes in all the parts, presence of diffuse vessels and rays in mature stem. This work, confirmed the plant’s potential uses. These parts could therefore be used as natural food and also extracted for manufacture of food supplements and drugs. Anatomical study is an additional aid to the plant taxonomic characterization and identification.


Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Single Cell Protein from Indigenous Fungi Ashbya gosypii and Aspergillus fumigatus

Zeinab Mohammad Zakaria, Shami Elhaj Alssafi Bakhiet

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/28128

Aims: The aim of this study was producing single cell protein (SCP) by using Ashbya gossypii and Aspergillus fumigatus which are isolated from Senna obtusifolia (sickelpod “kawal”) using Sabouraud’s dextrose agar medium.

Study Design: This study was designated as an experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum – Sudan “1st March to 30th June 2015”.

Methodology: The microbial biomass was obtained by inoculation of test microorganisms in different types of substrates including molasses substrate and mixture of banana peels plus wheat bran in equal amounts. The qualitative detection of protein in single cell protein biomass was done by ninhydrin method and agarose gel electrophoresis.

Results: The present study showed that Aspergillus fumigatus gave moderate (9.6 g) to significant (16 g) biomass while Ashbya gossypii gave none (0.0) or small (4.9 g) yield of biomass.

Conclusion: According to these results, Aspergillus fumigatus are better than Ashbya gossypii in production of single cell protein which produced larger amount of dry weight in both substrates as 6.8 g when use molasses and 14 g when use the mixture of banana peels and wheat bran, compared with zero gram (0 g) and 4.6 g dry weight produced by A. gossypii. This indicates           A. fumigatus can be used in large scale industrial production. This myco-protein is considered as generally regard as safe to use as alternative source of protein in food and animal feed unless more experiments are done.


Open Access Original Research Article

Screening Criteria and Selection Environment for Tolerance to Elevated Plant Density in Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbreds and Hybrids

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, M. M. M. Atta, M. A. Ahmed, A. S. M. Younis

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/28603

Indirect selection would be effective if heritability of the secondary trait is greater than that of the primary trait and genetic correlation between them is strong. The objectives of this investigation were to identify secondary trait(s) for selection of high maize grain yield under high plant density (HPD) and to identify whether the best selection environment is the optimum or stressed one. Diallel crosses among diverse inbreds in tolerance to HPD were evaluated in the field in two seasons under two contrasting environments; low density (LD); 47,600 plants/ha and high density (HD); 95,200 plants/ha, using RCBD with three replications. Strong favorable and significant genetic correlations were detected between grain yield/plant (GYPP) or HPD tolerance and each of yield components and days to anthesis (DTA), anthesis silking interval (ASI), plant height (PH), ear height (EH), barren stalks (BS) and leaf angle (LANG) for hybrids. The traits DTA, PH, EH, BS, LANG, ears/plant (EPP), rows/ear (RPE), 100- kernel weight (100 KW), kernels/row (KPR), kernels/plant (KPP), under both LD and HD environments had much higher narrow sense heritability (h2n) than GYPP (> 3 fold). Thus, these traits could be considered secondary traits to HPD tolerance. Selection for high KPP was more efficient in improving grain yield than selection for yield itself with a relative efficiency (RE) of 238.1 and 203.7% under LD and HD, respectively. It can be concluded that choosing the optimum selection environment to achieve maximum gain is affected by the genotype and the trait of interest. With respect of GYPP of hybrids, the direct selection is the best. The optimum selection environment is the target environment, while for inbreds; the indirect selection is the best. The optimum selection environment for high yield under HD is the optimum environment (LD).