Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate, Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies on Solanum macrocarpon L.

C. V. Ilodibia, E. E. Akachukwu, M. U. Chukwuma, N. A. Igboabuchi, R. N. Adimonyemma, N. F. Okeke

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27922

Proximate, phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of leaf, fruit and root of Solanum macrocarpon L. were evaluated using standard methods. Protein, fat, ash, fibre and moisture as well as bioactive compounds (alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin and tannin) were present in the plant parts but at varied levels. The leaf contained significantly the highest quantities of nutrients and phytochemicals. Antimicrobial screening showed that the leaf had the highest inhibition against the pathogens (Aspergilus niger van Tieghem (NR 241), Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach (NR 201), Candida albican (C. P. Robin) Berkhout (NR 242) and Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (NR 202) and the inhibition was dependent on extract concentration. At 50 g/100 ml, the extracts apart from the leaf showed no inhibition against the pathogens. The results indicated that Solanum macrocarpon extracts are rich in those nutrients and possessed antimicrobial properties thus justifies the use of the plant as food and could also be used in the treatment of microbial infections.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Screening of Fungi for Delignification of Paper Mill Effluent

Arifa Tahir, Mamoona Sarwar, Saima Aftab, Shahid Raza

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27876

Fifty fungi species were isolated from paper mill effluent i.e. Penicillium sp, Trichoderma sp, Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp, Aspergillus sp, and Phanerochaete sp. After screening of fungi, Phanerochaete sp, a white rot fungus was selected for delignification. The effect of different parameters on delignification was studied. It was found that pH (5), temperature (30°C), contact time (6 days) and moisture content (40%) were optimum for delignification by Phanerochaete sp. Different physicochemical parameters i.e., dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demands were also determined.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Cyto-physiological Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Some Weeds and Clove on the Growth of Chinese Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)

Mahmoud F. Moustafa, Sulaiman A. Alrumman, Hoida Zaki, Naglaa Loutfy, Mohamed Hashem

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27964

Cytological and physiological effects resulted from aqueous extracts of Aster squamatus, Euphorbia terracina, Euphorbia peplus, Syzygium aromaticum, Acacia pycnantha, Aloe vera, Euryops arabicus and Tamarix aphylla to the growth of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings were evaluated. Examined growth parameters including seeds germination percentage and the fresh and dry weights of root and shoot and their length greatly affected by types of extracts during the time course of germination. Among all tested extracts the Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) and Euphorbia peplus extracts found to be mitodepressant and induced noticeable frequencies of traditional chromosome aberration. Those two extracts also caused significant decreases to the length, fresh and dry weights of root and shoot of Chinese faba bean seedling. Euphorbia terracina and Tamarix aphylla extracts caused complete success of seed germination while Aster squamatus, caused noticed stimulation in root length, root fresh weigh (mg/plant) and root dry followed by Euphorbia terracina. Euryops arabicus caused significant stimulation in shoot length, shoot fresh weight, root lenght and in root fresh and dry weight followed by Tamarix aphylla.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of SSR Markers in Determination of Putative Resistance to SPVD and Genetic Diversity among Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato

S. M. Kiarie, L. S. Karanja, M. A. Obonyo, F. N. Wachira

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27582

Viruses are the second most important production constraint after the sweet potato weevil. Orange fleshed OFSPs) are characterized by medium to low resistance to sweet potato virus disease (SPVD). Therefore this studies were aimed at evaluating OFSPs for resistance to SPVD and their genetic diversity from six families.

Thirteen OFSPs clones from five families and other four genotypes were selected by their moderate SPVD responses after challenge to viruses. They were screened using ten Simple sequence Repeats (SSR) markers, six of them being polymorphic. Neighbor joining tree was generated with DARwin Version 6.0.010 using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA). Principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson Correlation matrix were obtained with XLSTAT 2015 version. The test clones clustered in two groups separately from virus susceptible genotypes. This implied that SSR markers are useful in discriminating virus susceptible and resistant genotypes. A total of 18 alleles were detected with an average of 3.0 alleles per locus. The highest major or abundant alleles (0.94)  was observed in marker IBJ- 324 Major allele frequency mean of 0.69 for the six markers was obtained. Mean genetic diversity of the markers was 0.41. Average polymorphism information content was 0.36. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine relationship between genotypes screened with SSR markers. Virus susceptible genotypes Ejumula and Carrot C had the highest similarity matrix of 0.83. Lowest matrix was between F1C9 and F3C1 at -0.03. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed an average similarity of 0.54 among genotypes. This study therefore indicates that there is robust genetic diversity in SPVD resistant sweet potato genotypes. These genotypes can be used as parents in breeding programs aimed at improving the crop for the multiple traits.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacillus Bacteria from Compost

Ayesha Ameen, Jalil Ahmad, Shahid Raza

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/26719

Many activated regions of gene can be used to identify the particular organism, this is easier by using the technique of 16S ribotyping of rRNA gene. These regions are present on rRNA gene and are conserved, that is the reason to use them for identification purpose. This study was mainly focused on the phylogenetic analysis of reverse sequence of bacillus strains for 16S rRNA gene. It was concluded that the AB1 and AB2 were closely related and showed direct lineage while the E.coli strain and salmonella showed outgroup relation.