Aims: The research study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and to molecularly detect cytomegalovirus among HIV patients attending some selected hospitals in Kaduna State, Nigeria. It was also aimed to determine the CD4+ cells counts of the HIV positive patients, screen for the presence of CMV IgG and IgM in HIV positive patients using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, detect the CMV DNA in IgM-seropositive samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and to determine the predisposing risk factors associated with CMV infection among HIV positive patients using a structured questionnaire.
Place and Duration of Study: The research study was conducted at three selected hospitals located in Kaduna state, Nigeria, between the periods of January, 2015 to May, 2016.
Methodology: One hundred and seventy eight (178) blood samples were collected from HIV positive patients from the three selected General hospitals in Kaduna state. The blood samples were examined for the presence of CMV IgG and CMV IgM antibodies by ELISA.
Results: A total of 99.4% of HIV infected patients tested positive to CMV IgG antibodies and 11.8% of HIV positive patients tested positive to CMV IgM antibodies. There was no statistically significant difference between human cytomegalovirus infection and CD4+ cells range at p = 0.091 for IgG while there was significant difference between HCMV infection at p = 0.039 for IgM. Across geographical zones infection with HCMV showed no significant difference for IgG (χ2 = 2.081, df = 2, p = 0.353) while significant difference was observed in IgM (χ2 = 12.808, df = 2, p = 0.002). The prevalence of HCMV DNA among HIV seropositive subject was 45%, out of the eleven randomly selected HIV positive samples glycoprotein B gene of CMV was detected in five of the samples following gel electrophoresis of their PCR amplified product.
Conclusion: The risk factors found to be associated with CMV infection were the geographical location of the HIV positive patients, marital status, and CD4+ cells range. There was no statistical association between CMV infection and age, sex, occupation, level of education, multiple sexual partner, blood transfusion, and ART. As a result of the high prevalence of CMV infection observed in this study, it is advisable that patients are tested for specific CMV antibodies in order to identify those at risk of CMV disease that are HIV positive with low CD4+ cells count and blood should be properly screened for CMV before transfusion to HIV positive patients.
Aim: To determine the perceived public concerns on the introduction of maize related agro-biotechnology including genetically modified (GM) maize in Kenya specifically with regard to biosafety, public health and religious ethics.
Study Design: Household survey.
Place and Duration of Study: A small scale maize growing area in Githunguri Ward (Kiambu County), a large maize growing area in Moiben Ward (Uasin Gishu County) and a maize consuming area in Umoja 1 urban residential area in the City of Nairobi, from September to October 2015.
Results: Most of the respondents were concerned about:- a) the likely contamination of conventional crops through cross pollination b) the likely harmful effects of biotechnology on valuable insects, c) the fear of unclear health implications including human sickness and death, and d) the inevitable interference with God’s creation of ordinary crops thus undermining God.
Conclusion: There is significant public fear and concern on the introduction of GM crops in Kenya hence the need for increased public education and awareness.
The objectives of the present investigation were to determine the type of gene action, heritability and expected genetic advance from selection for agronomic and yield traits of maize under high plant density (HD) stress and low density (non-stress) and to identify the parents that carry favorable genes for adaptive traits to HD tolerance. Plants of diallel crosses among 6 parents differing in HD tolerance were grown in the field along with their parents for two seasons using a randomized complete block design with three replications in two separate experiments; the first under HD (95.200 plants/ha) and the second under low density (LD) (47,600 plants/ha). Results across seasons showed that variances due to both additive and dominance were significant, but the magnitude of dominance was much higher than additive variance for all 12 studied traits under HD and LD, except for ears/plant (EPP) and rows/ear (RPE), suggesting that heterosis breeding would be more efficient than selection for improving such traits. Narrow-sense heritability (h2n) was of small or medium magnitude, but reached to 67.02% for RPE under HD. The degree of dominance in most cases was over dominance. In general, seven traits (anthesis silking interval; ASI, plant height; PH, ear height; EH, barren stalks; BS, RPE, kernels/ear; KPR and 100 kernel weight; 100 KW) showed higher h2n and expected selection gain (GA%) under HD than LD environment, while the remaining five traits (days to anthesis; DTA, leaf angle; LANG, EPP, KPP and grain yield/plant; GYPP) showed opposite trend. The inbreds L20, L53 and Sk5 carry genes of high yield and most of its contributing attributes. Genes of low BS are found in L20 and genes of narrow LANG in L53, Sk5 and Sd7. Genes of low PH and EH are found in L18 and L28. Genes of high RPE and short ASI are found in Sd7. Genes for earliness (DTA) exist in L18 and Sd7.
Aim: Insects secret antimicrobial peptides into the hemolymph to protect themselves against bacterial infection. This study aimed to test the antibacterial activity of the usherhopper, Poekilocerus bufonius hemolymph against positive (two species) and negative (six species) gram bacteria.
Study Design: Non-induced and induced hemolymph (for six and twelve hours) by Escherichia coliwere used for this study.
Place of Study and Duration: Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia, between March and July 2016.
Methodology: Thirty usherhopper adults were collected from Taif Governorate, Saudi Arabia. 10 insects were used for each treatment and twenty microliter of E. coli was injected into the coelom to stimulate the usherhopper immunity. Hemolymph antibacterial assay was carried out using ten microliter hemolymph on the pieces of filter paper and then the media culture was incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The formation of inhibition zone represented the antibacterial hemolymph effect in the medium.
Results: It was found that bacteria-induced hemolymph and non-induced hemolymph of usherhopper had antibacterial effect against eight species of bacteria. The inhibition zones diameter of tested bacteria species were significantly differed at all treatments of the non-induced, induced for 6 h and induced hemolymph for 12 h. In general, the higher antibacterial activity was recorded against E. coli whether the hemolymph was induced or non-induced. With the exception of three tested bacteria species i.e., Proteus mirabills, Bordetella petrii and Entrobacter hormaechei, the inhibition zone diameter not significantly affected by the non-induced, induced for 6h and induced for 12 h.
Conclusion: Usherhopper immune system against pathogens can be replacing the natural defensive mechanisms against invading microorganisms and can prevent indiscriminate use of chemical agents. We suggest that the extraction and definition of peptides from usherhopper hemolymph could be useful in defensive strategy against the pathogenic bacteria for human, plants and animals.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are low molecular weight biologically active molecules having exciting properties. A wide variety of AMPs have been isolated from various sources like plants, animals, mammals, insects and microorganisms. The most familiar structure is represented by α-helical conformation in organic solutions or disulfide stabilized β-sheet with or without α-helical domains present. Despite of striking diversity in structure and chemical nature, all of them possess antimicrobial activity. This fundamental property makes them as a promising candidate compared to chemical antibiotics. In the near future attempts should be made to generate AMPs with higher antimicrobial activity and broad range of microbe action. In this review, focus is given on the AMPs found in the silkworm Bombyx mori, with some findings on the innate immunity responses (both cellular and humoral). This review also summarizes six classes of antimicrobial peptides (cecropin, defensin, attacin, lebocin, moricin and gloverin) found in B. mori and their mode of actions against diverse range of pathogenic microbes.