Aims: For determination of levels and types of intraspecific diversity in the identified groups, electrophoresis studies and soil studies were employed.
Study Design: This study has designed base on accumulation of species and laboratory works.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of biology, plant laboratory of BASU University in Hamedan and the duration was between September 2009 and September 2010.
Methodology:Stachys, a genus of the Lamiaceae family, with more than 300 species is wildly distributed throughout the world. DSS method (Determination of Special Station) is the method of choice for this study which has established itself as an efficient method to study intraspecific diversity. 13 special stations for Stachys inflata were selected where 72 plant species are distinguished as associated species of these special stations. Floristic-ecologic data analyzed by Anaphyto software using F.C.A (Factorielle Correspondance Analysis) method.
Results: Comparison of the results led to determination of 9 groups for this species which reveals the existence of intraspecific diversity in Stachys inflata. The electrophoretic profiles of seed storage proteins are in accordance with floristic- ecologic and soil study groupings. Results obtained from the analysis of electrophoresis of seed storage proteins by MVSP (Multi Variante Statistical Package) and NTSYS software were also in accordance with floristic-ecological groupings. The number of bands and their density varied in this species, indicating their intraspecific diversity in the populations of Stachys inflata Benth.
Conclusion: Therefore, in this species, the grouping by floristic marker was confirmed by electrophoresis as well as soil data. As a result by using D.S.S method, the number of groups and their members were completely identical and utilizing ecological data such as soil caused to detect intraspecific diversity in this species.
The bacterial population, distribution and physicochemical properties of soils adjoining a major dumpsite in Uyo, Nigeria were investigated to assess the effect of dumpsite wastes on the soil health. Composite soil samples (0-20 cm depth) collected from four (4) sampling points I, II, III, and IV were analysed using standard bacteriological and analytical techniques. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistics 21 software. The results of the bacterial groups enumerated revealed counts ranging from 3.5±0.26×105 cfu/g to 6.0±0.10×106 cfu/g; 2.8±0.17×105 cfu/g to 2.4±0.20×106 cfu/g; 1.5±0.10×105 cfu/g to 1.8±0.17×106 cfu/g and 9.0±0.10×104 cfu/g to 1.3±0.10×106 cfu/g for Total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), Coliform bacteria (CB), Nitrifying bacteria (NB) and Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) respectively. At each sampling point, the distribution of THB was significantly higher (p<0.05) than all other bacterial groups. The bacterial isolates were mostly mesophilic species of Proteus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Citrobacter, Escherichia, Salmonella and Shigella with Bacillus predominating at every sampling point. Whereas physicochemical parameters were highest at sampling point I (closest to the dumpsite), the highest bacterial count were recorded at sampling point II and both reduced progressively away from the dumpsite. This study revealed that wastes generally increased bacterial proliferation as well as temperature with the release of nutrients, leachates and heavy metals which could adversely affect the health of soils at close proximity to the dumpsite. Hence, it is recommended that sanitary landfill with leachate cover should be constructed at designated locations so as to prevent surface/ground water pollution. Waste recycling technology should also be encouraged.
The aim of the study was to determine the proximate composition, phytochemical composition and the antimicrobial potentials of the extracts of Xylopia aethiopica and Gongronema latifolium on some commonly encountered pathogens. The proximate composition results reveal that both plants were very rich in basic nutrients. X. aethiopica had 14.5% moisture, 2.41% ash, 1.38% protein, 0.33% fat and 72.1% carbohydrate. G. latifolium on the other hand, had 44.1% moisture, 3.43% ash, 9.10% protein, 3.65% fat, 8.60% fiber and 31.3% carbohydrate. Phytochemical screening of both plants showed that they were abundant in phytochemicals such as alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, reducing compounds and polyphenols. However, tannins, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and hydroxymethyl anthraquninones were absent. Crude quantification of the phytochemicals revealed that flavonoids and polyphenols were the most abundant of all. Analysis of variance triplicate readings was significant (P < 0.0001). Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed varying zones of sensitivity to the aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of both plants. Aqueous extracts of G. latifolium gave the highest zone of inhibition of 26 mm with P. aeruginosa with while the least inhibition of 7 mm was recorded with methanolic extract against S. aureus. The zones of inhibitions for X. aethiopica were almost similar for all the test isolates. The result of the study confirms that these plants have tremendous potentials that could further be exploited.
Aims: Thermophilic cyanobacteria generally grow in sulphur containing thermal springs. Mesophilic cyanobacteria have optimal temperature in the range of 28°C to 37°C. The aim of the study was to see whether mesophilic cyanobacteria can grow at elevated temperature in the presence of sulphide? If yes, what is the role of sulphide in combating thermal stress in the mesophilic cyanobacteria?
Study Design: Growth of mesophilic cyanobacterium Westiellopsisprolifica was studied at its optimum growth temperature and in presence and absence of sulphide under thermal stress. Simultaneously, level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants was studied under above conditions.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002, India, from November 2014 to December, 2015.
Methodology: Out of nine mesophilic cyanobacterial organisms screened, only Westiellopsis prolifica exhibited growth at 42°C, though less than at 28°C. The tolerance level of this organism to sulphide was determined by growing it in graded concentrations (0.5 to 5 mM) of sodium sulphide. Supplementation of 2.5 mM sulphide in the cultures at 42°C negated the negative effect of thermal stress. Enzymatic (SOD, POD, and CAT) and non-enzymatic (glutathione, proline, and ascorbic acid) antioxidants in the test organism grown under thermal stress and in the presence of sulphide were determined. Results: It was observed that level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione) increased while the content of ascorbic acid decreased in the presence of sulphide.
Conclusion: The organism exhibited less growth with a simultaneous increase of antioxidants such as SOD,POD, and CAT. This is the first report on the role of sulphide in ameliorating thermal stress in mesophilic cyanobacterium Westiellopsis prolifica by triggering enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system. This indicated that under thermal stress reactive oxygen species were produced which were scavenged by these antioxidants. Whether this is true for mesophilic cyanobacteria, in general, can be tested by studying some more strains.
The state of art of new plant breeding techniques has been developed at the back drop of progress accomplished in plant biotechnology to meet global challenges in food production. Some of the new plant breeding techniques are adopted by commercial breeders. The widely employed new breeding techniques are Cisgenics, Agroinfiltration and Oligonucleotide directed DNA Methylation. The crops developed by adopting these techniques are in commercial developmental phases. Few of the new techniques still at research level and could be close to commercialization are Reverse Breeding, Zinc Finger nuclease, Grafting on GM root stock and RNA dependent DNA methylation. The technology of Cisgenics includes transformation of gene belonging to its own genome. The emerging technologies to introduce controlled insertion of genetic material to targeted gene sequencing are Oligonucleotide directed methylation and Zinc Finger nuclease. The great technical potential and economical benefits, technical constraints, safety issues and also regulations of these new plant breeding techniques have been identified and are critically reviewed.