Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Characterization of Neurotransmitter Receptor Genes in Tsetse Fly Genomes

Millicent T. Mumbo, George F. O. Obiero, Johnson Kinyua, Steven R. G. Nyanjom

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-32
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/29705

Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. African trypanosomiasis is transmitted by the tsetse fly to humans (sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis) and livestock (nagana or Animal African Trypanosomiasis) throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with an estimated 70 million people at risk of infection. The reduction or elimination of tsetse populations is an effective method for disease control that could be improved with greater knowledge of their biology and genetics. This study describes the comparative identification of neurotransmitter receptor genes in six tsetse fly species namely G. morsitans morsitans,                       G. fuscipes fuscipes, G. pallidipes, G. brevipalpis, G. palpalis and G. austeni. Putative neurotransmitter receptor (NTR) genes were characterized and analyzed. Phylogenetic relationships among six recently published genomes of tsetse species were described so as to improve vector control techniques. Genomic data was sourced from flybase and vectorbase. Data collected was analzed by: Blast algorithm blastn with an e-value of 1e-5 which was used to search for blast hits of NTR genes in the subject genome, G. morsitans morsitans, G. fuscipes fuscipes,  G. pallidipes, G. brevipalpis, G. austeni and G. palpalis at Vectorbase. Multiple sequence alignment of the final annotated NTR amino acid sequences of each type and query homologs was done using MUSCLE software. The alignment was analyzed using jalview tool. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed for each category of NTRs using 500 bootstraps with gamma distributed changes as statistical method and best-fitting amino acid evolutionary model. MEGA6 software was used to construct the phylogenetic trees. The results were presented using appropriate tables and figures.


Open Access Original Research Article

Vitamins Contents in Edible Parts of Some Mucilaginous Food Plants from Côte d’Ivoire

Olivier Yapo Assi, Adama Coulibaly, Privat Kouakou, Ysidor N’Guessan Konan, Olivier Chatigre, Henri Godi Biego

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/28709

Aims: To assess the vitamin contents in different edible parts of nine mucilaginous food plants (MFPs) consumed by the Ivorian population.

Study Design: MFPs edible parts were dried and vitamin parameters analyzed.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Bioscienes Unit, at Félix Houphouet-boigny University between January 2013 to December 2014.

Methodology: The acquirement of the plants has been done in 3 big regions (Tonkpi, Bélier and District of Abidjan) of Côte d’Ivoire. To achieve this study, 100 kg of fresh fruits and masts of the species I. gabonensis, I. wombolu and B. mannii have been bought to the farmer in the region of the Tonkpi. A same quantity of leaves, calyx and flowers of B. buonopozense has been harvested in the region of Bélier. As well as 100 kg of leaves of C. olitorius, M. arboreus, A. digitata and varieties tomi and koto of A. esculentus have been bought to the Gouro market in the District of Abidjan. HPLC techniques were used for the separation and quantification of β-carotene, α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and phylloquinone (vitamin k) and the water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine and folic acid. Also, estimated daily intake and contribution to dietary recommended intake have been evaluated for Ivorian adult of 70 kg.

Results: ¶¶There was wide variation in the vitamin concentration depending on the plant source and the part of the  plant ranging per 100 grams dry matter for  α-tocopherol (5.15-70.83 mg), β-carotene (70-4340 RE) and phylloquinone (0.014-1.97 mg), thiamine (0.25-2.22 mg), riboflavin (0.01-1.61 mg), niacin (0.06-1.07 mg), pyridoxine (0.6×10-2- 1.67 mg) and folic acid (0.3×10-2 - 0.66 mg). ¶The kernels were rich sources of α-tocopherol, while the fruits were rich in fruits majority and thiamine, pyridoxine, folic acid, while the leaves and flowers were richest in β-carotene, vitamin E and K and contributed 0.60% to 3.79% of the daily requirement of fat-soluble vitamins. The estimated daily intake for each food ranged between 0.1 and 0.7 g/day with estimated total daily foods consumed of  1018.1 g. ¶¶

Conclusion: MFPs ¶Mvalorisation could contribute to ensure the nutritional safety and bring more incomes to Ivorian populations.¶


Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of Biogenic Sulphide Production and Biocorrosion of Carbon Steel by Sulphate-reducing Bacteria Using Ocimum gratissimum Essential Oil

O. M. Immanuel, G. O. Abu, H. O. Stanley

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/28786

The inhibition effects of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil (OGEO) on biogenic sulphide production and biocorrosion of carbon steel by Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were investigated in the laboratory. SRB were isolated from injection and produced water from Bonga oilfield in Nigeria. Biogenic sulphide production experiment was setup to monitor sulphide production by SRB. The effects of temperature, pH and salinity on biogenic sulphide production were determined. High sulphide production was observed at temperatures ranging between 20°C – 40°C and pH 7 - 9. Sulphide production decreased as salinity increased. Significant production of sulphide (59-168 mg/l) was detected after 72 hours of incubation of >105 cells/ml SRB consortium under study conditions and the maximum of 293 mg/l was observed after 144 hours at 30°C when pH was 7 and salinity 25 g/l. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of OGEO were determined to be the same at 0.52 mg/ml. Corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE) increased with increase in concentration of extract and decreased with increase in temperature. OGEO gave the highest IE of 69.61% at 20°C, 61.050% at 30°C and 58.01% at 40°C for the 14 days test. For the 28 days test, OGEO gave the highest IE of 71.03% at 20°C, 63.61% at 30°C and 59.41% at 40°C. OGEO+50 ppm D-tyrosine blend gave IE ranging from 89.22 - 92.82% and 84.90 – 92.08% for 14 and 28 days test respectively. Adsorption mechanism of OGEO on carbon steel obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters evaluated gave negative values for ΔHads and ΔSads, suggesting that the adsorption reaction is spontaneous at low temperature. OGEO showed activities against SRB isolated from oilfield environment and could be useful for the prevention of biocorrosion of carbon steel structures in this environment.


Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Essential Oils on Growth of Phytopathogenic Fungi Responsible for Rotting of Fruits

Pramila Tripathi, Habung Yami, A. K. Shukla

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/29331

Aims: To evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils against phytopathogenic fungi for control of post harvest diseases.

Place of Study: present study was carried out at Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar, India.

Methodology: Phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from infected fruits on rose Bengal agar medium and potato dextrose agar medium. Subsequently fungi were identified and cultures were maintained on the above mentioned medium. Essential oils were extracted from a number of plants and further four plants (Acorus calamus, Agreratum conyzoides, Artemisia nilagirica, Litsea cubeba) essential oils were selected to evaluate their essential oils against the isolated fungi. Antifungal activity was assessed by poisoned food technique using above mentioned media. Essential oils were standardized for fungitoxic properties and nature of toxicity. Fungitoxic spectrum of essential oils was also determined using other storage fungi.

Results: Antifungal property of essential oils was determined at different concentration such as 125 ppm, 250 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm and 5000 ppm. There was 100% inhibition in the growth of phytopathogenic fungi at 5000 and 1000 ppm concentration by essential oil of Acorus calamus, Agreratum conyzoides, Artemisia nilagirica and Litsea cubeba. Essential oil of Acorus calamus and Agreratum conyzoides also inhibited growth of Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea at 500 ppm concentration. The decrease in colony diameter or growth of fungus was corresponding to the concentration of oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration of oils was reported 500 ppm. Essential oils of Agreratum conyzoides, Artemisia nilagirica and Litsea cubeba were fungicidal at 1000 ppm concentration. A. calamus oil was found fungicidal at 500 ppm for A. alternata and B. cinerea and at 1000 ppm for fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium expansum. Fungitoxic spectrum of oils showed that there was almost 100% inhibition of all the other storage fungi.

Conclusion: On the basis of results It can be stated that Acorus calamus, Agreratum conyzoides, Artemisia nilagirica and Litsea cubeba essential oil may be used as botanical pesticides for management of post harvest phytopathogenic fungal diseases. However, further investigations are needed in light of pharmacological tests.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antagonistic Activity of Bifidobacterium breve Isolated from Breast-fed Infants Human Gastrointestinal Microflora against Two Clinical Strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA)

Zainab Nashaat AL-Saadi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/28724

The antibacterial activity of Bifidobacterium breve against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA from human middle ear infection (otitis media) as well as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strain was tested in vitro. MRSAis a multidrug-resistant microorganism and the principal nosocomial pathogen worldwide. The Bifidobacterium breve             (b1, b2, b3 and b4) strains which isolated from healthy human infants were employed. All the Bifidobacterium isolates mentioned above have been identified as novel probiotics with a greater ability to survive at low pH and high concentrations of bile salt in vitro, and with a growth rate of 3.5-4.5 and 5.5% in NaCl solution. The growth inhibitory effect produced by the antagonistic activity of the lactic acid bacteria on the MRSA and MSSA strains was tested on solid medium using agar spot test.

All bifidobacteria Cells (b1, b2 and b4) except (b3) showed high antibacterial activity after 24 h of their incubation anaerobically at 37°C with significance differences (P≤ 0.05). MRS media (control) showed no activity. No significant differences appeared between MRSA and MSSA strains with antagonistic activity of bifidobacterial cells against both of them. In contrast the antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) under the current study was more potent than the activity of ofloxacin (positive control).