Open Access Minireview Article

Mucosal Opened Cavities as the Organ of Increased Resistance and Effectiveness

M. V. Lakhtin, V. M. Lakhtin, S. S. Afanasiev, V. A. Aleshkin

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/27478

New aspects of human mucosal cavity protection systems are under consideration. On the basis of own data it was suggested that mucosal cavities function as mucosal organs. New players of mucosal organ were proposed. They included system probiotic lectins and probiotic microorganisms, and system synthetic polymeric multivalence pattern glycoconjugates. Resulting interacting biotope pro/synbiotic system of microbes, lectins and glycoconjugates (mucin-like or imitating, antigens and others) was suggested to communicate to other glycoconjugates-recognizing molecules and receptors of the human higher hierarchic protection systems. Conception of functioning mucosal organs is supported by own proposals, strategies, approaches, methods and algorithms. The data are also useful for constructing biotope pro/synbiotic microbiocenoses for application in medical biotechnology.


Open Access Original Research Article

Species Specific Activity of Digestive Enzymes in Two Freshwater Prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Macrobrachium malcolmsonii Juveniles

Annamalai Asaikkutti, Periyakali Saravana Bhavan, Karuppaiya Vimala, Madhayan Karthik

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/29404

Aim: The activity pattern of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase, lipase and cellulase) was studied in two species of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Macrobrachium malcolmsonii juveniles.

Study Design: Digestive capacity of individual species may vary. In order to see whether the activities of protease, amylase, lipase and cellulase in two species of freshwater prawns are more or less similar or not under a prescribed methodology.    

Methodology: The hepatopancreas of prawns was blended and suspended in 10 mM phosphate buffer. After centrifugation at 15,000 rpm for 5 min, the supernatant was collected and used as crude enzyme source for the assays of protease, amylase, lipase and cellulase activities by adopting the standard methods.

Results: The activity patterns of protease, amylase, lipase and cellulase were more or less similar in both the species studied. However, M. malcolmsonii showed little higher activities than that of               M. rosenbergii.    

Conclusion: There were no clear cut species specific activities of digestive enzymes observed between M. rosenbergii and M. malcolmsonii.


Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Structure and Geographical Relationship of Selected Colocasia esculenta [L. Schott] Germplasm Using SSRs

Valerie A. P. Palapala, Edome Peter Akwee

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/28479

Aims: SSR markers were used to infer population genetic structure variability in taro cultivars with the objective of characterizing the allelic diversity of each geographical population.

Place and Duration of Study: Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology and Beca Hub, ILRI, Nairobi.

Methodology: Six highly polymorphic SSR markers widely distributed in taro population genome were used in genotype 50 cultivars collected from Kenya and a taro genebank (SPC Tarogen).

Results: The average polymorphic loci was 87.88%. The highest Shannon information index was observed in the germplasm from Nyanza (1.04), Western (1.2) and Hawaii (1.11) and Malaysia (1.36). Only Malaysia and Thailand germplasm had allele unique to a single locus. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 70% of the variations found within individual taro accessions, 6% of variations among the taro populations and only 24% amongst individual taro genotypes and they were statistically significant (p<0.001). Principal component analysis clustered the taro germplam into different groups. In total 50.06% and 51.82% of the variation was explained by the first three principal components of the taro germplasm. Some of the Kenyan taro cultivars clustered together with the Tarogen germplasm.

Conclusion: The determination of genetic diversity is core function towards understanding taro genetic resources for varietal identification to rationalize its collection and safeguarding the existing genetic diversity for taro germplasm conservation, management and for potential utilization for food security.


Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity of Soybean Yield Based on Cluster and Principal Component Analyses

E. F. El-Hashash

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/29127

The objective of this study was to determine analysis of variance, descriptive statistics, cluster and principle components analysis to understand their genetic diversity for ten soybean genotypes on seed yield (ten/fed.) during 2014 and 2015 seasons. Results for analysis of variance indicated highly significant genotypes and years and significant genotypes x years interaction for seed yield. The soybean genotypes Giza 111, Giza 30 and Crawford for seed yield (ton/fed.) were produced the highest mean values. The 2014 season had greater than 2015 season for seed yield (ton/fed.) in most soybean genotypes.  Standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variation and range for seed yield (ton/fed.) has noticed considerable genetic diversity in the ten genotypes. The ten soybean genotypes based on seed yield were grouped into four clusters using cluster analysis. The first, second and third clusters comprised of two genotypes i.e., (Giza 32 and Crawford), (Giza 30 and Giza 111) and (Hybrid 129 and Hybrid 132), respectively. While, the fourth cluster consisted of four genotypes viz., Giza 21, Giza 22, Giza 35 and Clark. The second cluster had recorded highest mean seed yield, followed by the first, fourth and third clusters. The principle components analysis showed that PC1 and PC2 having eigen values highest than unity explained 82.55% of total variability among soybean genotypes attributable to seed yield and accounted with values 67.77% and 14.78%, respectively. PC1 and PC2 noticed positive association with all and most genotypes, respectively. Biplot obtained from the PC1 and PC2 almost confirmed the cluster analysis grouped. The biplot displayed positive and strong relationships between most studied genotypes. Based on the cluster and principle components analysis, the wide diversity among the studied genotypes were found, their direct use as parents in hybridization programs to maximize the use of genetic diversity and expression of heterosis and develop high yielding soybean varieties.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Manuka Honey Estrogen Activity Using the MCF-7 Cell Proliferation Assay

Kathleen Henderson, Tahrir Aldhirgham, Poonam Singh Nigam, Richard Owusu-Apenten

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/29887

Aims: To assess the estrogenic activity of Manuka honey using the MCF7 cell proliferation assay.

Study Design:  In vitro cell based E-screen.

Place and Duration of Study: Ulster University, Coleraine, UK, September 2015 to September 2016.

Methodology: Manuka honey (UMF15+) was characterized for total phenolic content (TPC) using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and antioxidant power, using the 2, 2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay. Estrogenic activity was assessed using MCF-7 cells cultured in DMEM-F2 phenol red-free media supplemented with 10% charcoal stripped FBS and evaluated using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assay. All experiments were conducted in triplicate (n-12-48) and genistein was the positive control. The effect of Manuka honey (UMF15+) treatment on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using the 2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay.

Results: Manuka honey (UMF15+) antioxidant power was related to total phenols content. MCF7 growth promotion occurred at very low concentrations of honey (5x10-6-5x10-3% v/v honey; or 2.75 x10-10M - 2.75 x10-7 M TPC) indicative of estrogenic activity whilst higher concentrations of honey (>0.5% v/v) were inhibitory. Similarly, the genistein positive control demonstrated estrogenic activity indicated by MCF-7 cell growth at low concentrations (5x10-9-5x10-8 M) and toxicity at high concentrations. Estrogenic characteristics were quantified in terms of the relative proliferative potency (RPP) and relative proliferative effect (RPE) for Manuka honey of 18% and 22.5-27.5%, respectively. For genistein RPP was 0.1% and RPE was 70% compared to values of 100% for estradiol. Intracellular ROS increased for MCF-7 cells treated with increasing honey concentrations.

Conclusion: Manuka honey (UMF15+) exhibits estrogenic activity monitored as growth promotion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with estrogenic parameters being comparable to values reported for some purified flavonoids. Treatment of MCF-7 cells produced a dose-dependent rise in intracellular ROS.