Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology,
Historically, the science of biotechnology started through domestication of plants and animals by early men and selective plant breeding which subsequently led to transgenesis. Fermentation of grains and fruits using yeast was initiated in Egypt and other ancient parts of the world about 2500 BC. The practice of quarantining people to prevent the spread of diseases was introduced long before the origin of diseases. Introduction of traditional medicine was carried out by the ancient Egyptians using honey to treat infections until 1928 when Alexander Fleming extracted penicillin. Furthermore, synthetic antibiotic chemotherapy began in Germany with Paul Ehrlich in 1880s. The discovery of genes as a unit of inheritance was celebrated in 1865 by Gregor Mendel. Moreover, it took another 90 years of research before scientists discovered that genes were made up of DNA which was the beginning of modern biotechnology. The recombinant DNA technology was emerged in 1970s. These discoveries together with the new findings in all fields of biosciences and computer sciences gave rise to the modern day genetic engineering; as a result, cloning in 1980s, polymerase chain reaction in 1983 and DNA fingerprinting technique were developed respectively. Wide ranges of therapeutic proteins and biopharmaceutical products such as insulin, interferon vaccines, synthetic hormones, and synthetic antibodies were archived. Bioconversion of organic wastes by the use of genetically altered bacteria has gained considerable attention. Hence, biotechnology has greatly promoted human life socially, economically, scientifically and medically from primitive to modern and advance level.