Open Access Minireview Article

Biotechnology as a Cradle of Scientific Development: A Review on Historical Perspective

Shehu M. Adamu, Abdullahi Y. Koki, Surajo Adamu, Abdullahi M. Musa, Ahmad S. Abdullahi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/29092

Historically, the science of biotechnology started through domestication of plants and animals by early men and selective plant breeding which subsequently led to transgenesis. Fermentation of grains and fruits using yeast was initiated in Egypt and other ancient parts of the world about 2500 BC. The practice of quarantining people to prevent the spread of diseases was introduced long before the origin of diseases. Introduction of traditional medicine was carried out by the ancient Egyptians using honey to treat infections until 1928 when Alexander Fleming extracted penicillin. Furthermore, synthetic antibiotic chemotherapy began in Germany with Paul Ehrlich in 1880s. The discovery of genes as a unit of inheritance was celebrated in 1865 by Gregor Mendel. Moreover, it took another 90 years of research before scientists discovered that genes were made up of DNA which was the beginning of modern biotechnology. The recombinant DNA technology was emerged in 1970s. These discoveries together with the new findings in all fields of biosciences and computer sciences gave rise to the modern day genetic engineering; as a result, cloning in 1980s, polymerase chain reaction in 1983 and DNA fingerprinting technique were developed respectively. Wide ranges of therapeutic proteins and biopharmaceutical products such as insulin, interferon vaccines, synthetic hormones, and synthetic antibodies were archived.  Bioconversion of organic wastes by the use of genetically altered bacteria has gained considerable attention. Hence, biotechnology has greatly promoted human life socially, economically, scientifically and medically from primitive to modern and advance level.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Bacteriological Quality of NAFDAC Registered and Unregistered Sachet Water Sold in Lafia Metropolis

B. E. Asikong Ernest, Chuku Aleruchi, Dominic Reuben Tiku, Obande Godwin, Akpuchukwu Vivian

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/29421

The bacteriological quality of NAFDAC registered and unregistered sachet water sold in Lafia metropolis was investigated. A total of 150 water samples; 100 samples with NAFDAC registered number and 50 without NAFDAC registered number were obtained and analysed using standard Most Probable Number-MPN method and other standard microbiological tests. Results revealed that the registered sachet water had coliform count of 0/100 ml and Physical parameters such as  colour and turbidity within the permissible range as provided by the Federal Ministry of Environment- FME and WHO and therefore safe and fit for consumption. The unregistered sachet water, recorded coliform count ranging from 45/100 ml to 550/100 ml indicating high level of contamination with faecal and non-faecal coliforms. The total bacterial count from the unregistered sachet water ranged from 0.4 x 103 cf/ml to 7.9 x 103 cfu/ml. Isolates such as Esherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Enterobacter species were identified, and E. coli was more prevalent. The presence of these organisms which are of faecal origin, revealed that the water sources (unregistered sachet water) are bacteriologically unfit for human consumption. This calls for regular monitoring and assessment of all sachet water sources in Lafia metropolis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Indigenous Brown Rot Fungi from Rotten Wood from Selected Areas of Pakistan

Raja Tahir Mahmood, Muhammad Javaid Asad, Muhammad Asgher, Muhammad Gulfraz, Dawood Ahmed, Pervez Anwar, Nasib Zaman

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/29724

Aims: Wood decaying fungi are very good candidate for industrial processes like; enzymes productions, dyes biodegradation and wastewater decolorization. Many studies have been conducted to explore their potential for successful industrialization. There is still need to isolate more and more new species so that these can be used for beneficial processes.

Methodology: The current study was conducted to collect Brown Rot Fungi (BRF) species from rotten wood and their morphological identification. The collection was made from Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Murree areas of Pakistan. Collected fungi species were cultured on Malt Extract Agar media at pH 5.5 and pure culture plates were submitted in Mycology Laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi Pakistan for morphological identification by mycologist.

Results: More than 20 species were collected, out of these 05 were cultured on Malt Extract Agar media and identified on morphological basis. Two of these are common brown rot fungi belong to basidomycota and three are un-common brown rot fungi belong to ascomycota.

Conclusion: Rotten wood is a very good source of brown rot fungi. Isolated BRF species can be used to explore their potential of biodegradation of textile dyes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Generation of Bioelectricity and Simultaneous Treatment of Waste Water Using Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC)

S. Uma Maheswari, Pooja ., Gandham Jhansi, Geetika Pant

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/30927

This era is definitely an era of renewable energy generated from resources which are naturally replenished on a human time scale. This study provides information that initiates to reveal correct mechanisms involved with electron transfer to microbial fuel cell (MFC) electrodes using two bacterial isolates. The MFC performance was successfully carried out in P. aeruginosa and E. coli microbial inoculum for 30 days. Biochemical analysis confirms the purity of the respective microorganisms. The comparative physical parameters showed E. coli as an efficient source of degradation than P. aeruginosa in Lake water for Biological oxygen demand (1.6 mg/lt), Total dissolved solids (920 mg/lt), Chemical oxygen demand (64 mg/lt) and Dissolved oxygen (0.8 mg/lt) with respect to apartment & STP waste. In contrast, the efficiency of salt degradation like nitrate (570 mg/lt), chloride (92.49 mg/lt), sulphate (1000 mg/lt) and phosphates (3200 mg/lt) calcium (0.56 mg/lt) was shown more by P. aeruginosa compared to E. coli in STP than Lake and apartment waste. Further the efficiency of microbes in degradation of waste materials and production of electricity was statistically proven with ANOVA showing the best voltage production in two samples by P. aeruginosa (419.8 mV and 380.7 mV) in lake water and apartment samples respectively. Similarly, the third sample collected from sewage treatment plant (STP) showed the maximum volt efficiency of 344.16 mV by E. coli.


Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Influence of Substrates on Kojic Acid Production by Estuarine Aspergillus oryzae RMS2 Isolate Under Solid State Fermentation Using Sugar Cane Bagasse as an Inert Substrate

C. Ranjit Kumar, S. Jayalakshmi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2016/30454

Aims: In the present study, sugarcane bagasse was evaluated as an inert support for the production of kojic acid under solid state fermentation using two different production medium as moistening agents for the maximum production of kojic acid. Different parameters such as fermentation time, carrier size, moisture content, pH, temperature and inoculum size were optimized using One-Factor-at-a-Time approach (OFAT).

Study Design: Two fermentation mixed media were designed with 1:6:3 concentrations, where 1% is carrier, 6% carbon substrate and 3% nitrogen substrate. Such as medium I containing (g/100 g) sugar cane bagasse (carrier), 10; rice bran (carbon substrate), 60; ground nut oil cake (nitrogen substrate) 30; KH2PO4, 0.2; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.05; NaCl, 0.25. Medium II containing (g/100 g) sugar cane bagasse (carrier), 10; tea waste (carbon substrate), 60; sunflower oil cake (nitrogen substrate), 30; KH2PO4, 0.2; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.05; NaCl, 0.25.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Soil samples were collected from Vellar Estuary, Portonovo (Lat. 11°29’ N; Long. 79°46’), South East coat of India, between January 2015 and July 2016.

Methodology: Soil samples were serially diluted and inoculated in to a Potato Dextrose agar plate (Hi-media) supplemented with 0.10 g of FeCl3 and incubated for 7 days at 35±2°C when the kojic acid producer strain was grown on the medium then the kojic acid reacts with ferric ions the color of the medium turned red at around 1 week. It was observed on reverse side of petri plate. Kojic acid estimated according to colorimetric method of Bently (1957).

Results: It was observed that sugarcane bagasse impregnated with medium I, pH 5.0, Temperature 30°C. at 80% moisture content (v/w), carrier size 0.5 mm and inoculum size of 30 ml/100 g support produced 109 g/kg of Kojic acid after 14 days as compared to 81 g/kg before optimization.

Conclusion: The combination of rich carbohydrates and rich protein substrates produced higher production (M1, 109 g/kg and M2, 106 g/kg) as compared to un-optimized conditions (81 g/kg and 79 g/kg, respectively). In addition, the yield (M1, 0.109 g/g substrate and M2, 0.106 g/g substrate) and productivity (M1, 0.324 g/kg.h and M2, 0.315 g/kg.h) obtained from the optimization was higher than that obtained from the un-optimized conditions (0.081 g/g substrate and 0.079 g/kg.h, respectively).