Open Access Short Research Article
Insect host preference by the larval pupal endoparasitoid Opius. pallipes was studied in Ojilate region in western Libya using broad bean (Vecia faba) as a host plant and the two leafmininig species, the American serpentine leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and the tomato leaf miner Liriomyza bryonia (Kaltenbach). Three peaks of abundance were recorded by O. pallipes on both insect hosts L. bryonia and L. trifolii. On brad bean a peak was exhibited with (81 individuals/ 100 infested leaflets) with L. trifolii whereas a peak of (31 individuals/ 100 infested leaflets) was exhibited with L. bryonia. The lowest count was observed with (33 individuals/ 100 infested leaflets) on L. trifolii and with (27 individuals/ 100 infested leaflets) on L. bryonia. Under laboratory conditions, insect host preference of the parasitoid O. pallipes was tested. The Results indicated that number of eggs and parasitized larvae per parasitoid female were significantly higher on L. trifolii than L. bryonia in the choice test with (9.2±3.9 eggs/female and 7.0±2.9 host larvae/female, on L. trifolii than L. bryonia respectively). On the other hand number of parasitized larvae per female was significantly higher in no choice test with (9.2±2.3 parasitized larva/female and 7.1±3.0 parasitized larva/female, on L. trifolii than L. bryonia respectively).
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: To study the effect of process parameters on lipase production of B. sonorensis 4R for improved lipase yield.
Place and Duration of Study: School of Life Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded, between Feb 2016 and April 2016.
Methodology: In the present study, the individual and combined effects of process parameters on lipase production by a hyperthermo-alkalophilic strain of B. sonorensis 4R are studied. Parameters used in this study were incubation period, temperature, initial pH of medium, carbon and nitrogen sources, substrates and metal salts.
Results: The isolate showed maximum lipase production after 4 days of incubation at 80°C and pH 8.0 and when growth medium was supplemented with 1% glucose, 1% ammonium sulphate, 100mmol CaSO4 and by using 1% Tween-80 as lipidic substrate. The combined effects of six variables (pH, temperature, substrate concentration, carbon source, nitrogen source and metal salt) studied in 12 experimental sets showed highest lipase production (51.33 U/mL) by B. sonorensis 4R. In a medium design composed with Tween-80 (1%), CaSO4 (100 mmol), glucose (0.5%), ammonium sulphate (1%), pH (7.5) and when incubated at 80°C, 6.88 fold enhancement over control was observed in lipase production.
Conclusion: In the present study, lipase production from B. sonorensis 4R has been optimized using individual and combined effects of simple and easily manageable process parameters. This knowledge will be helpful to many industrial processes to obtain improved enzyme productivity.
Open Access Original Research Article
Improvement of agro industrial by-products via microbial biodegradation in order to subside nutritional challenges cannot be over flogged. This study was conducted to investigate the possible improvement in nutritional quality of brewer dried grains (BDG) using Aspergillus flavus as biodegrading agent and the consequent effect of degraded BDG on the performance and nutrient utilization by broiler chickens. Undegraded and degraded BDG was used to compound rations for broiler birds for 8 weeks. The undegraded was used at 7% inclusion level and the degraded was used at 3, 5 and 7%. 150 day old chicks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments. 30 birds were allocated to each treatment with three replicates each. Aspergillus flavus was cultured onto BDG using Solid State Fermentation for a period of 7 days. Chemical analysis of undegraded and degraded BDG showed that biodegradation altered the chemical composition. The crude protein improved from 27.89 to 39.12 g / 100 gDM (28.71%). The ash improved from 4.39 to 6.22 g / 100 gDM (29.42%). The gross energy increased from 4.92 to 7.10 kcal/kg which showed 30.70% improvement. However, the crude fibre and the detergent fibre reduced after fungal biodegradation. The crude fibre reduced from 14.85 to 11.17 g / 100 gDM. At both starter and finisher phases, there were significant (P<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gained and feed conversion ratio and birds placed on degraded BDG (DBDG) showed better nutrient utilization than ones on undegraded BDG (UBDG). The relative cost benefits (RCB) showed that the chickens on DBDG gave better economic gain than the ones on UBDG treatment.
Open Access Original Research Article
The sub-Saharan African feed industry is encumbered with competitors for the conventional feed ingredients. The competition most often increases the prices of these ingredients and invariably the cost of animal production. The use of agro industrial by-products after fungal biodegradation can be of help in combating this challenge. This study was carried out to assess the effect of Penicillium chrysogenum degraded brewer`s dried grains (BDG) on the performance, digestibility and egg quality of layers. Degraded and Undegraded brewers dried grains (BDG) were used to formulate the rations for laying birds for 12 (twelve) weeks. A total of two hundred and fifty two (252) laying birds that were thirty (30) weeks old were randomly allocated to the diets. There were seven treatments and treatment 1 was the control with 0% brewer dried grains (BDG) inclusion level. The degraded and the undegraded BDG were used at 3, 5 and 7% inclusion levels. Thirty six (36) birds were allocated to each of the treatments with three (3) replicates at 12 birds each. Penicillium chrysogenum was inoculated on BDG by Solid State Fermentation method for seven days and was used as the degraded sample. The proximate analysis of undegraded BDG was compared with degraded BDG. The Crude protein, ash, ether extract of degraded brewers dried grain rose from 25.67 to 31.57%, 9.87 to 12.45%, and 6.87 to 7.35% respectively while crude fibre reduced from 15.93 to 10.39%. Results on the performance of the birds revealed that there were significant (P<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and hen-day production. Egg quality characteristics also revealed a significant (P<0.05) differences in egg weight and shell thickness. The results showed that Penicillium chrysogenum was able to enhance the feeding value of BDG and this impacted positively on the feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and egg quality characteristics.
Open Access Review Article
Postharvest infections are among the chief reasons for the worsening of horticultural products in the sequence of storage and delivery. The occurrence of postharvest infections and subsequent diseases can influence the value of the fresh food products and also hamper the shelf life. Nowadays stringent rules are compulsory by the fresh produce importing nations concerning the least pesticides residue level in the palatable fraction of the fresh food products. A number of phytopathogens were reported to attain resistance against man-made antifungal agents. Disposal of waste containing these synthetic chemicals has an adverse impact on environmental track. Hence, the present scenario demanded the exploration of a natural novel antifungal substance as a substitute for the chemical applications as a postharvest treatment during storage and packing line up. Contemporary increasing awareness of consumers towards herbal based and organic products is also a matter of concern in this context. Hence, this review summarizes the utilization of essential oils of plant origin in the control of postharvest diseases of horticultural produce, their eco-friendly and consumer friendly approach of actions, etc. The present communication also reviews the work done in past on investigating the role of essential oils in fungal deterioration of stored products.