Open Access Original Research Article

Algae to Remove Phosphorous in a Trickling Filter

K. Dölle, C. Watkins

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/29979

At a waste water treatment facility, secondary treatment process algae species Cladophora glomerata and Vaucheria is growing in a trickling filter. This study investigates the role of the algae and its potential for phosphor removal. Phosphorus removed by algae in the trickling filter reached 52% or 902.5 g per day at a flow rate of 9000,000 l/d.


Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition and Antibiotic Resistant Listeria Species in Fura-de-nunu Sold in Port Harcourt

Onoriode C. Eruteya, Camilus O. Eze

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/30655

Aims: The study evaluated the proximate composition and the occurrence of antibiotic resistant Listeria species from fura-de-nunu sold in Port Harcourt metropolis.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted in duplicate and mean values calculated.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between October 2013 and May, 2014.

Methodology: A total of 101 samples were examined for the presence of Listeria using standard methods employing Fraser broth and polymixin acriflavin lithium chloride ceftazidime aesculin mannitol (PALCAM) agar. Characteristic colonies were identified on the basis of Gram staining, catalase reaction, oxidase reaction, beta haemolysis on sheep blood agar and carbohydrate fermentation using mannitol, rhamnose and xylose. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton Agar, according to CLSI guidelines using the breakpoints of Staphylococcus species resistance since no resistance criteria exist for Listeria susceptibility testing in the CLSI guidelines. The moisture, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, carbohydrate and total ash contents of the fura-de-nunu samples were analysed using the method described by Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Results: The average proximate chemical analysis shows the following: moisture (84.92%), ash (0.48%), carbohydrate (7.70%), protein (3.32%), lipid (3.09%) and fibre (0.49%). Out of the 101 samples examined, Listeria spp. was present in 38 (37.60%) samples. The resulting isolates were confirmed to be L. grayi, 29.63% (40 of 135 isolates), L. seeligeri 18.52% (25 of 135 isolates) and              L. welshimeri 51.85% (70 of 135 isolates). The results of the antibiotic sensitivity testing showed varying degrees of resistance against the selected antibiotics with the highest resistance against erythromycin (73.53%), followed by cloxacillin (61.76%) and least was against chloramphenicol (16.91%).

Conclusion: The presence of antibiotic resistant Listeria spp. portends danger for consumers of this product hence efforts should be intensified in ensuring the safety of consumers.


Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Cholesterol Lowering Probiotic Yeast from Palm Raffia (Raffia mambillensis) Wine

Eurydice Flore Tiepma Ngongang, Bernard Tiencheu, Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi, Gordon Takop Nchanji, Dzelafen Marcel Shiynyuy, Félicité Tchouanguep Mbiapo, Zambou Ngoufack François

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/30469

Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the cholesterol lowering effects of probiotic yeasts isolated from raffia (Raffia mambillensis) wine.

Study Design: Collection of fermented raffia wine samples, culture, isolation, identification on culture media and selection of cholesterol lowering strain in vivo and in vitro.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Teaching Laboratory of Life Science, Department of Biochemistry, University of Buea from February 2016 to July 2016.

Methodology: Six different palm wine samples were collected and used for selection of yeasts isolates on sabouraud Dextrose Agar using pour plate method and those with acid, bile tolerance and cholesterol assimilation in vitro selected. Strains were identified using the API 20C AUX and their cholesterol lowering effect on wistar albino rats studied. The in vivo experiment was carried out for four weeks by oral gavage; dose level 108-1010 CFU/ ml. The administered volume of each dose was 1.0 ml/kg body weight/day. After the feeding trial, the rats were dissected and serum lipid profile analyzed using biochemical kits.

Results: From six raffia wine samples, twenty eight yeasts isolates were selected based on their morphology; twelve isolates showed resistance to low pH and bile salts. Among them four isolates  were able to assimilate at least 50% cholesterol in culture media and were biochemically characterized using the API® 20C AUX BioMerieux kit, which revealed 94.9%, 95.3%, 51.5% and 92.2%, homology of 1R27, 1W29, 2R29 and 3W29 with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida famata, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida famata respectively. Based on their best in vitro assimilation, strain 1R27 and 3W29 were further used for in vivo tests. Both strains showed evidence of their capacity in vivo to adhere to epithelial intestine-derived cells, reduce lipidemia (tryglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL) and increase HDL. All the two strains confirm their cholesterol lowering properties in vivo. The probiotic strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the most efficient on reduction of the levels of total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL in the rats blood serum compared to Candida famata.

Conclusion: These probiotic strains can therefore be used to improve the product quality and develop added value to dairy products. Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease and probiotics can then be suggested as tools to manage elevated cholesterol levels.


Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Whey Protein Concentrate Edible Membrane with Cinnamon Essential Oil

Idris Aisha, Yahaya Abdullahi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/29136

Aims: The aim of this study was to develop whey protein edible films, characterize the film for structural and physical properties and food preservation or shelf life improvement studies.

Study Design: Development, characterization and food preservation of edible film.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Bio Science, lovely professional university India between January 2016 and May 2016.

Methodology: Whey protein concentrate film (prepared by casting method) containing 1.0% - 4.0% of cinnamon essential oil was tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Circular disc of the film were placed on Muller Hinton Agar plates containing bacterial lawn and the zone of inhibition was measured post incubation of 24 hours. The effect of cinnamon essential oil on the film property was studied by measuring the physical, optical and mechanical properties of the film.

Results: Whey protein concentrate edible film containing 4.0% cinnamon essential oil was the most effective against S. aureus. None of the whey protein concentrate films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil has antimicrobial activity against E. coli. Edible film obtained in present study was found to be effective to control the food spoilage in various food stuffs.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the film can be used to improve food safety as well as extending the shelf life of food by controlling the release of antimicrobial on food surfaces.


Open Access Original Research Article

Haematology and Serum Indices of Finisher Broiler Chickens Fed Acidified Blood Meal-based Diets

O. A. Ogunwole, O. A. Abu, B. S. Adedeji, F. O. Jemiseye, A. Y. P. Ojelade, O. O. Tewe

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/30227

The effects of Biotronics SER (an acidifier) in a blood meal-based diet on haematology and serum indices of broiler finishers were assessed in this study. One hundred and eighty, one-day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four treatments in triplicates of 15 birds per replicate. Birds were initially raised on broiler starter diet devoid of blood meal and subsequently placed on experimental blood meal based finisher ration for another four weeks. T1 (control diet) with no blood meal or acidifier, T2 (Co-supplementation of 0.3% biotronics and 2% blood meal), T3 had 2% blood meal supplementation while T4 had 0.3% acidifier. Birds were offered feed and water ad-libitum. Dietary acidifier in blood meal based diets had no significant effect (P> 0.05) on all determined haematological indices of broiler chickens. Serum aspartate amino transferase (AST) levels 49.46, 42.53, 41.76 IU/dL was similar (P>0.05) for T1, T2 and T4, respectively but differed significantly from T3 with AST value of 29.77 IU/dL. However, dietary acidified supplemented group revealed variable results in serum protein indices (total protein, globulin and albumin). Co-supplementation of acidifier and blood meal elevated serum cholesterol but lowered serum uric acid. Dietary acidifier at 0.3% for finisher broiler chicken in blood meal-based diets had no adverse influence on the haematological profile of broilers. Conversely, it altered most serum indices which may have implied on the metabolism of nutrients in the fed chickens.