Open Access Original Research Article

Micromorphological and Phytochemical Studies on Cleome rutidosperma Linn.

K. Okonwu, C. Ekeke, S. I. Mensah

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31028

The study was carried out to determine the micromorphological structure and quantify the phytochemical components of Cleome rutidosperma Linn. The study revealed the presence of five stomatal types (anomocytic, staurocytic, tetracytic, anisocytic and isotricytic) and polar contiguous stomata on both abaxial and adaxial surface of the leaf of C. rutidosperma. The shapes of the adaxial epidermal cells are relatively regular while the abaxial epidermal cells are irregular. There are fewer stomata on the adaxial epidermal surface than the abaxial surface. The range of the stomatal index (SI) on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces is between 3.85-20.0 and 63.64-84.21 respectively. Cleome rutidosperma has eglandular trichomes which occur on the leaf surfaces and stem of the plant; these trichomes are disrriate or trisariate with multicellular base. The petiole has five U-shaped free open collateral vascular bundles. The midrib is U-shaped adaxially and contains 5-free vascular bundles which formed a semicircle. The adaxial and abaxial epidermis have single layer of cell with 4-5 and 4-6 layers of parenchymatous cells, respectively. The upper parenchyma comprised 3-4 layers of cell while lower parenchyma has 4-7 layers of cells. The fruit stalk comprised 7-vascular bundles in a concentric ring. The cuticle is undulated with one-layer of epidermis and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells. The stem is pentagonal with 18-20 vascular bundles in a concentric ring. The epidermis has 1-layer of cell, collenchymatous cells 1-3 layers and parenchyma cells 1-4 layers but up to 6-10 layers the angles or protruded ends. The quantitative analysis of the phytochemicals showed that the C. rutidosperma contains 1.64% alkaloid, 2.84% flavonoid, 0.145% tannin, 3.25% saponin, 30 mg/kg cyanogenic glycoside, 48.8 mg/g oxalate while phytate was not detected. These micromorphological information recorded in this work can be used to distinguish C. rutidosperma from other members of the genus and are therefore of taxonomic value. Also, the presence of these phytochemicals could account for its use by the local communities in south-east Nigeria for the treatment of ear infection and other illnesses.


Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Enzyme Activities during Composting of Soiled Cotton Waste

A. Patnaik, L. Naik

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/30069

Huge amount of soiled cotton waste is being produced by utilization of sanitary napkins by the women who have attained puberty. An attempt has been made to manage these wastes through composting and vermicomposting. Enzyme activities were studied during the composting and vermicomposting of soiled sanitary napkins. The highest protease (354.356 µg/g/hr), urease (0.104 µg/g/hr), amylase (119.08 µg/g/hr) and cellulase (170.13 µg/g/hr) activity was observed in vermicomposting sets. There was significant increase (p<0.001) in the enzyme activity in the vermicomposting and composting sets as compared to control.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Mycoflora Associated with Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott) Chips (Achicha) in Storage

E. M. Ilondu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31035

Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott) corms were processed into chips (Achicha) by drying to increase storage life and availability. During this drying process, microorganisms often settle on the exposed surface causing deterioration. In this study, the effect of different drying methods on mycoflora associated with cocoyam chips in storage was evaluated. The corms were washed under flowing tap water, parboiled for 10 minutes, peeled, slice and divided into three equal portions for drying. Three drying methods were used (A = Ambient, O = Oven and S = Sun drying). Dried chips were stored in airtight containers at room temperature (30 ± 2°C) for 3-months period. Observed mycoflora were isolated on agar plates and identified. A total of 961 colonies comprising of 15 species of fungi were recorded including Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Curvalaria lunata, Fusarium solani, Mucor mucedo and Rhizopus stolonifer among others. A. niger occurred most, followed by M. mucedo, F. solani and B. theobromae throughout the period of storage irrespective of drying method employed. Mycoflora occurred in the order of S>A>O while number of fungal colonies increased as the storage period increased with August>July>June. Thus, oven drying cocoyam chips is recommended as this reduced exposure to fungal colonization compared to sun and ambient drying. Since various traditionally processed food including cocoyam chips are consumed in Nigeria, drying in more confined environment with enhanced facilities are needed to improve quality of product, good health and food security for the local populace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of the Antilisterial Peptides Produced by Enterococcus hirae Strains Isolated from Raw Ewe Milk

Naheed Mojgani, Narges Vaseji, Soodabeh Khalkhali, Muneera Naz Baloch

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/30045

Aims: This study was conducted to identify and characterize the anti-listerial bacteriocins produced by Enterococcus hirae strains isolated from ewe milk.

Study Design: Bacteriocins produced by E. hirae strains were identified and characterized by physio-chemical methods. Bacteriocin structural genes were evaluated by molecular methods.

Place and Duration of Study: Biotechnology Department, Razi vaccine and Serum Research institute, and National institute of Animal Science, Iran, between January 2013 and March 2015.

Methodology: Two E. hirae were isolated from raw ewe milk samples collected from Yengi Esperan (Sfeedan) village located in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. The isolates demonstrating antilisterial activity were identified by 16S rRNA genes sequencing. The bacteriocinogenic potential of the isolates was evaluated using biochemical tests. The proteinaceous compounds were purified using Ammonium sulphate precipitation (40%), cation-exchange chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE analysis. Occurrence of enterocin structural genes was evaluated using a set of primers in a PCR reaction.

Results: The antilisterial compounds produced by the two E. hirae strains were sensitive to the proteolytic enzymes, while catalase and lipase had no effect on the activity. In contrast to the bacteriocin Eh512, enterocin Eh514 showed partial sensitivity to the enzyme lysozyme. The proteinaceous agent from the two producer isolates; Eh512 and Eh514 were single peptides of approximately 6.5 and 5.8 KDa, respectively. The enterocins in study appeared heat stable and resistant to acidic pH values. Analysis of the enterocin structural genes, showed the presence of entA, and entB genes in both the isolates whereas, E. hirae Eh512 additionally harbored entP and entQ genes. Sequence analysis of entA genes in both isolates indicated 95% homology with other entA genes in NCBI library.

Conclusion: The studied enterocins might be suitable replacement for chemical additives used in food preservations. However, further studies are required to validate these findings.


Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Type III Secretion Toxins Encoding-genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in the West Bank-Palestine

Ghaleb Adwan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31319

Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses Type III Secretion System (T3SS) to inject four types of secretion virulence determinants directly into the cytoplasm of host cell. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of virulence genes encoding type III secretion system toxins among P. aeruginosa isolates. A total of 51 isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from different clinical samples in 2015-2016. Detection of gene sequences encoding type III secretion toxins ExoS, ExoT, ExoU and ExoY was performed by the multiplex PCR. Thirty-three of these P. aeruginosa isolates were genotyped by RAPD-PCR and Antibiogram for all isolates was also determined. Results of this research showed that the frequency of gene sequences encoding for type III secretion toxins detected by PCR in tested P. aeruginosa isolates was 100% and 72.5% for exoT and exoY, respectively, while exoS and exoU genes were not detected in these isolates. RAPD-PCR analyses showed that the tested isolates had 3 identical clones recovered from different hospitals and different geographical areas. The isolates of P. aeruginosa showed high resistance against Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (100%), Nalidixic acid (98%), Ceftriaxone (96.1%), Cefotaxim (96.1%) and Tetracycline (74.5%). To our knowledge, up to now, this is the first study documented the virulence determinants associated with P. aeruginosa in Palestine. Although our study is comprised of a relatively small number of P. aeruginosa isolates, it is a representative sample giving a picture of the general situation in Palestine. In conclusion, the results of this study showed high prevalence of T3SS genes among clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in Palestine.