Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Studies of Ethanolic Extract of Emilia praetermissa Milne-Redh (Asteraceae) in Rats

Ndji Otto Gustave Lebeau, Amang André Perfusion, Mezui Christophe, Nkwengoua Zodengoumba Ernestine, Enow-Orock Enonchong George, Tan Paul Vernyuy, Nyasse Barthelemy

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/30831

Aims: The objective of the present study was to determine the acute and subchronic toxicity of the ethanolic extract of E. praetermissa in rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Biology & Physiology (Animal Physiology Laboratory) and Department organic chemistry (Laboratory of medicinal chemistry), Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I. Between January and November 2016.

Methodology: Acute toxicity (single administration, 2000 mg/kg) and sub chronic toxicity (28 days: 10 rats per group 5 males and 5 females) given, respectively, distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of extract every 24 h orally) were conducted according to OECD guidelines No. 423. Satellite controls and satellite test groups received, respectively, distilled water and extract (1000 mg/kg).  Body weight was recorded on day 1 and once a week for six weeks. The animals were sacrificed on the 29th day and blood biochemical and hematological parameters were measured. Histological examination of tissue specimens of liver, kidney and lungs was performed after hematoxylin-eosin staining.

Results: Extract showed significant increase in relative weights of liver in males at 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Dose 1000 mg/kg showed significant increase in relative kidney weights in both sexes. Extract-treated males showed significant increases (500 and 1000 mg/kg) of total white blood cell and platelet counts, while female rats showed no significant increase of total WBC counts. Biochemical study showed, in male rats, significant decreases in HDL-cholesterol (at 1000 mg/kg). Serum transaminases (ASAT, ALAT), total protein and creatinine also increased in male rats at 1000 mg/kg. In female rats, biochemical study revealed significant decreases in HDL-cholesterol at 1000 mg/kg and significant decreases in HDL-cholesterol, and increased levels of ASAT, ALAT, total protein and creatinine at 1000 mg/kg (vs. control female rats). Microscopically, there were hepatic (parenchymal leucocyte infiltration, nuclear enlargement and intense margination) and renal (mesengeal hyperplasia) and lung (atelectasis) tissue lesions at high doses supporting by the hematological observations.

Conclusion: Acute toxicity study of the extract revealed that its LD50 is above 2.0 g/kg bw in rats. Subacute toxicity study suggests that high doses of the extract taken for long periods can result in toxic effects in liver, lungs and kidneys.


Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Characterization of Macro Fungi Associated with Forest Tree of National Botanical Garden, Dhaka

H. Rubina, F. M. Aminuzzaman, M. S. M. Chowdhury, K. Das

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/30970

This investigation was conducted in National Botanical Garden, Dhaka located at 24°00′ N (Latitude), 90°00′ E (Longitude) to document the morphology, diversity and distribution of macro fungi during the rainy seasons of July to October, 2015. A total of 23 macro fungi samples were collected and identified to 20 species under 10 genera and 10 families. The predominant genera were Ganoderma sp., Lepiota sp., Daedeleopsis sp., Russula sp., Psythyrella sp., Lycoperdon sp., Crepidotus sp., Psilocybe sp, Flammulina sp. and Cantharellus sp. The survey revealed that six species are edible, thirteen species are inedible but among them nine species have medicinal value and only one species of unknown uses. The maximum density of occurrence was exhibited by Psilocybe cubensis (45%) followed by Lepiota sp. (40%), Ganoderma pfeifferi (35%) and Ganoderma lucidum (25%). The specimens were deposited to Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University Herbarium of Macrofungi (SHMF). The present investigation emphasized the existence of a distinct biodiversity in macrofungi population at National Botanical Garden, Dhaka.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-evaluation and Study of Anticancerous, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Explants of Piper longum in vivo and in vitro

Sudipta Banerjee, G. R. Pathade, M. A. Mallick

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/30963

Piper longum is a medicinal plant of great importance. The present work is to compare anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of different explants (leaf and stem) of Piper longum in vivo and in vitro. The anticancerous activity was measured in terms of percentage cytotoxicity and the cell line used was leukemic cell line K562. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, bacteria were used for determination of antibacterial activity. Solvent extracts were prepared from leaf and stem explants of Piper longum and their anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antioxidant activity was measured in terms of percentage (%) Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and percentage (%) 2,2– diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazy1 (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant effects were found to be higher for hot extracts than cold extract. Further the results of in vivo explants were better than in vitro explants, in case of anticancerous activity and results of in vitro explants were better than in vivo explants, in case of antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diptera (Arthropoda: Insecta) of Potential Importance in Human and Animal Health in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Virginia I. Agedah, M. Aline E. Noutcha, Christian O. Umeozor, Samuel N. Okiwelu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31081

The insect order Diptera has often been considered as the Medical and Veterinary order, because it contains families that affect humans and animals directly and indirectly. The focus on insect borne diseases in Bayelsa State had been on Malaria, although the contiguous States of Rivers and Delta, with similar vegetation, topography and climate contain foci of other dipteran-borne diseases: Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), lymphatic filariasis (LF) but none of these had been extensively studied in Bayelsa State. It was therefore decided to investigate the occurrence of dipterans of potential importance in human and animal health in Bayelsa State. Five sites, three in freshwater swamp forest (Sagbama, Odi, Sampou) and two in the mangrove swamp forest (Nembe, Igopiri) were selected. The Challier-Laveissiere biconical trap and the Malaise trap were used. Collections were over a 7-month period. A total of 1311 species in 6 families: Musccidae (1142), Culicidae (118), Calliphoridae (35), Tabanidae (13), Glossinidae (2), Oestridae (1) were caught in freshwater mangrove forests. In the freshwater swamp forest, a total of 1014 were collected; the six families were recorded at Sampou, only 3 families at Odi, while 2 families were recorded at Sagbama. In the mangrove swamp forest, only 5 families: Muscidae (244), Tabanidae (07), Culicidae (28), Glossinidae (1), Calliphoridae (15). The implications of these results with respect to human and animal health for action by the Ministries of Health, Agriculture and Natural Resources are discussed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Ecological Characterization of Xylotrophic Fungi in Mangrove Forest Regions of Bangladesh

K. Das, F. M. Aminuzzaman

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/30971

Sundarban (Mangrove), the largest tidal halophytic forest in the world lies a little south to the Tropic of Cancer between the latitudes 21°30'N and 22°30'N, and longitudes 89°00'E and 89°55'E. This forest is the greatest source of diverse xylotrophic fungi. In a survey program 20 species of xylotrophic fungi belongs to 13 genera were identified under seven families such as Polyporaceae, Ganodermataceae, Hymenochaetaceae, Fomitopsidaceae, Xylariaceae, Steccherinaceae and Gloeophyllaceae. The predominant genera were Ganoderma, Trametes and Inonotus. The maximum frequency (75%) was recorded for Daedaleopsis confragosa and 50% for Trametes elegans, Trametes conchifer, Polyporus sanguineus, Ganoderma curtisii and Irpex lacteus. The maximum density was 31.82% for Pycnoporus sanguineus which was found on the Sundari (Heritiera fomes) tree. This is the first detailed investigation on Xylotrophic fungi in mangrove forest regions of Bangladesh.