Open Access Minireview Article

Production of Monoclonal Antibodies in Transgenic Plants

Yohannes Besufekad, Pandian Malaiyarsa

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31777

Antibodies are one of specialized immune protein and innovative therapeutic agents that provides effective alternatives to treating various human diseases. The existing fermenter based process of production of great value antibodies that have biomedical importance is costly, tedious and low yield obtained via purification process. So far different plant types such as vegetables, cereals and legume plants were used to produce important therapeutic proteins. Expression of antibody in transgenic plants might be a solution to successfully scale up therapeutic antibodies, and lower the production costs. This is due to cheap production cost of plants and large amount of yield would be obtained. This review aims to high light on the possibility and comparison to efficiently produce antibody in different plant organs. Also the review extends to over view the role of plants as a flexible expression system for antibody production, which we foresee to progress alongside the production platforms to manufacture specialized antibodies using transgenic plants.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Perception of Bee Pollination of Watermelon and Soybean in North-Central, Nigeria

A. M. Ajao, Y. U. Oladimeji

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31311

Given the sheer size of the Nigerian population, increasing at geometric rate while food production increases at arithmetic rate, crop pollinations have important implications for nation food self-sufficiency and the sustainable increases in food production. This work was undertaken to assess farmers’ knowledge, attitude and perception of bee pollination activity vis-à-vis watermelon and soybean production in North-Central, Nigeria. A field survey comprising questionnaire administration and group discussion of the watermelon and soybean farmers was conducted in 10 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria. A total of 160 farmers consisting of 80 watermelon and 80 soybean farmers were randomly sampled. The main tools of analysis were descriptive statistics and propensity score matching. The results revealed that the average age of  watermelon and soybean farmers were 43 and 45 years, mean education index of 4.1 and  4.6 years respectively, household size of 8 and adjusted size of 7 for both and average annual income of ₦120550 ($430.54) and ₦135600 ($484.29) respectively. The empirical results also revealed there is a significant difference in average annual farm income and crop yields among watermelon and soybean farmers who adopt bee pollination services and non-adopters. The study recommends the need to enlighten and assist farmers through extension agents to imbibed bee pollination service for insect dependent crop production.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Elevated Plant Density Effects on Performance and Genetic Parameters Controlling Maize (Zea mays L.) Agronomic Traits

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, M. M. M. Atta

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31550

Studying mode of gene action for maize traits under high plant density is a prerequisite for conducting an appropriate breeding program for developing high density tolerant varieties. The objective of this study was to assess maize diallel crosses for mean performance, combining ability and genetic parameters controlling studied traits under elevated plant densities. Experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014 seasons, using a split-plot design with 3  replicates; main plots were assigned to plant densities, i.e. low- (LD),  medium- (MD)  and  high- (HD)  density (20,000,  30,000 and 40,000 plants/fed) (fed=feddan=4200 m2), respectively and sub-plots to 17 genotypes (15 crosses and two checks). Combined analysis across seasons indicated that elevating plant density from 20,000 to 40,000 plants/fed caused a significant decrease in grain yield/plant (GYPP) by 40.18%, leaf angle (LANG) by 25.51% and all yield components, but caused a significant increase in grain yield/fed (GYPF) by 30.0%, plant height (11.34%), ear height (19.41%), days to anthesis (4.35%) and days to silking (3.79%). Significant increase in GYPF due to elevating density to 40,000 plants/fed varied among crosses from 12.22 to 51.90%. The best general combiners for GYPP and GYPF were IL92 and IL172   under MD, IL92 for GYPP and IL24 and CML104 for GYPF under HD. Both additive (δ2A) and dominance (δ2D) variances played important role in controlling the inheritance of most studied traits under all environments. The δ2A component was higher than δ2D for most studied traits under all plant densities. Estimates of broad- and narrow-sense heritability and genetic advance from selection were the highest in magnitude under high density for 5 traits (barren stalks, ear height, leaf angle, kernels/row and GYPF), under medium density for 3 traits (GYPP, 100-kernel weight and number of kernels/plant and under low density for 6 traits (days to anthesis, days to silking, anthesis-silking interval, plant height, ears/plant and rows/ear).

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Oxidative Stress Markers in Exotic Breeds of Rabbit during Peak of Heat Stress in Ibadan, Nigeria

O. A. Jimoh, E. O. Ewuola, A. S. Balogun

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/30437

The study assesses oxidative stress markers in exotic rabbit bucks at peak of heat stress in Ibadan, Nigeria. Four rabbit breeds were considered; Fauve De Bourgogne, Chinchilla, British Spot and New Zealand White. Adult rabbits (10-12 months old) were randomly selected per breed and randomly allotted to experimental units at highest temperature-humidity index. Blood samples were collected through the ear vein and assessed for serum biochemicals and oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde, total antioxidant activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase at 7 weeks of exposure to peak of thermal discomfort. The results obtained indicate that serum glucose, sodium and potassium were significantly affected by breed. Serum lipid peroxidation was also significantly lower in British Spot rabbits and highest in Fauve De Bourgogne. Serum SOD of British Spot rabbits (1.47 U/min/mg protein) was significantly highest compared with New Zealand White (1.20U/min/mg protein), Chinchilla (0.92 U/min/mg protein) and Fauve De Bourgogne (0.88 U/min/mg protein). British Spot had significantly highest serum catalase (130.73 nm H2O2 / min/mg protein) activities and an apparently highest total antioxidant activity (0.99mmol/litre) and GPx (40.32 µgGSH/min/mg protein). This suggests that British Spot breed of rabbit had better oxidative stability among the breeds of rabbits assessed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Infected Seed Potato Tuber in Contamination of Land and Clean Potato Stocks with Common Scab

Awadalla I. A. Irabi, Mohamed Y. A. Abubaker, Siddig M. Elhassan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31267

The objective of this study was to assess the role of scab-infected seed tubers in contamination of land and progeny of clean potato stock with common scab. The experiment was conducted over two consecutive years using the white-skinned cultivar ‘Diamant’ and the red-skinned ‘Pekaro’. They were planted in separate plots as contaminated and clean seed tubers, respectively, or mixed along the same ridge in an alternating pattern of contaminated and clean seed stocks of the two potato cultivars. In both seasons, scabby seed tubers produced significantly the highest infection levels in the progeny tubers (34% and 41.7%, respectively). In comparison with the clean control, the progeny of the clean stock in the mixed treatment developed significantly higher common scab (17.3% and 30.3% in the two seasons, respectively). The abundance of scab on progeny tubers was also significantly different between the various treatments and followed the same trends as above. The disease development was significantly greater on tubers harvested twelve weeks after planting compared to earlier harvest. Thus the seed-borne scab inoculum appeared to play a profound role in contamination of land and consequentially a significant infection of clean potato stocks.