Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Response of Clarias gariepinus Post Fingerlings Fed Various Dietary Protein and Digestible Energy Levels

B. S. Aliu, J. T. Otuagomah

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31608

The purpose of this work was to determine the growth response of Clarias gariepinus post fingerlings to four protein level (25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) by two energy level (2800 and 3000 Kcal/kg) so as to be able to estimate the response of the various fish fed with the diets containing this varying protein and digestible energy levels, their growth performance and protein utilization. Eight experimental diets were formulated and used to feed the post fingerlings for a period of 70 days in three replicate for each treatment. The feed and fish carcasses were analyzed for proximate composition of the post fingerlings. Parameters such as Specific Growth Rate (SGR), weekly weight gain (WWG) as well as Percentage Weight gain (PEWG) recorded the best weight gain at a crude protein of 40% and Digestible energy (kcal/kg) DE of 3000 while the least value for weight gain was recorded at 30% CP at 2800DE. An increase in PEWG was recorded across the various crude protein levels except at 35% CP and 40% CP at 3000DE and 2800DE respectively. The feed with 30% CP at 3000DE constantly maintained the fifth position and that with 35% CP with 3000DE maintained the third position according to TWG, SGR, RWG and PEWG.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodegradation of Cibacron Redazo Dye and Industrial Textile Effluent by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Immobilized on Chitosan-Fe2O3 Composite

Nashwa A. H. Fetyan, A. Z. Abdel Azeiz, I. M. Ismail, T. M. Salem

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31332

A bacterial strain (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) having a high capacity for rapid decolourization of the azo dye Cibacron Red was isolated and identified by 16s-rRNA gene sequencing method. The decolorization of cibacron reactive red by free cell under experimental conditions was investigated. At initial dye concentration of 100 ppm, the maximum decolorization percentage (89%) was achieved at pH7, 37ºC under static conditions after 72 h of incubation. The bacterial cells were immobilized on chitosan-magnetite nanoparticles by using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The immobilized cells were used for decolorization of both reactive red dye solution and textile industrial wastewater; a complete decolorization (100%) was achieved after 2 h and 12 h for each treatment, respectively. The dye biodegradation products were identified by GC/MS analysis and determination of laccase, peroxidase and dioxygenase enzyme activities in the bacterial supernatant. The obtained results from this work are expected to be a useful reference for development of effective decolorization bioprocesses utilizing immobilized bacterial cells as a biocatalyst and also to demonstrate feasible operation strategies to utilize the immobilized-cell as a fixed bed for efficient decolorization of dye-laden wastewaters.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Latent Infection, Bio-deterioration and Yield of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Caused by Taro Leaf Blight Disease (Phytophthora colocasiae Raciborski)

Manju Evelyn, Fokunang Charles, Mbong Grace, Tembe- Fokunang Estella, Rachid Hanna

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/16479

Taro leaf blight disease caused by Phytophtora colocasiae is a potential economic disease of the taro crop growing regions of Cameroon and other humid tropical regions of West and Central Africa.

Studies were conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Yaoundé Nkolbisson to investigate latent infection bio-deterioration and yield of P. colcasiae on 10 improved and 4 local cultivars of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Taro), under the influence of latent infection by Phytophthora colocasiae the causal agent of leaf blight. Symptomless taro plants materials after incubation at room temperature of 24± 2°C for 10 days showed the presence of mycelia growth in more than 90% of the cultivars. This was an indication that symptom-less taro materials contained Phytophthora colocasiae that could only express itself under favorable environmental condition during the course of the growth and development of the host plant. There was a significant difference (p≤ 0.5) in corm number and weight of corms among all the cultivars. Resistance of taro cultivar to the P. colocasiae showed an influence on bio-deterioration potential of taro corms. Cultivar BL/SM144, White stem, Red and white stems corms did not deteriorate indicating they were resistant.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Raw Baobab Seed (Adanosonia digitata) Meal on the Performance of Weaned Rabbits

A. I. Abdullahi, R . J. Wafar, S. Z. Yusuf

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31931

This study evaluates the effect of raw baobab seed meal (RBSM) on the performance of 40 weaned rabbits with an average weight of 683.00 ± 0.12 g. The rabbits were randomly allotted to four diets with five replicates in a completely randomized design containing 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% raw baobab seed meal (RBSM). Data were collected on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and haematological indices. The results of growth performance showed that the final body weight and total body weight gain of weaned rabbits fed 0% (T1), 10% (T2) and 20% (T3) RBSM were similar (P>0.05). However, the rabbits fed 30% (T4) RBSM recorded significantly lower (P<0.05) final body weight and total body weight gain. The feed intake decreased (P<0.05) beyond 20% (T3). The carcass characteristics and internal weight of organs followed similar trend. The nutrient digestibility was (P<0.05) influenced by inclusion levels of RBSM. Dry matter (DM) digestibility was significantly higher (67.20%) in T1 (0%) while the lowest value (55.40%) was observed in T4 (55.40). Crude protein (CP) digestibility ranges from 64.37 to 55.39% while the ether extracts (EE) was between 70.54 to 69.03%. The digestibility values for crude fiber (CF) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) ranges from 67.77 to 55.94 and 65.89 to 59.03%, respectively.  The RBSM at 10% to 20% in the diet was found the best inclusion rate for rabbits.

 

Open Access Review Article

The Science, Acceptance and Support of Modern Biotechnology in Africa

F. Kyei, R. E. Puobi, S. Gadu, E. W. Dokurugu, T. R. Djimadjor, E. N. D. Laryea

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/32160

Biotechnology is a science that makes use of biological organisms, or their sub-cellular components in health, agriculture, manufacturing and service industries, and in environmental management. It is increasingly clear that commercial products of modern biotechnology cannot be overlooked in relation to their potential benefits to the African community. In plant biotechnology, the application of plant tissue culture, plant molecular markers and genetic engineering are key to the development of Africa’s agricultural sector. Modern biotechnology enables the development of diagnostic test kits for use both in the laboratory and in the field. In a holistic view, modern biotechnology provides the opportunity for better health care, enhanced food security through sustainable agricultural practices, access to improved water quality, efficient methods to process raw materials, and support for sustainable methods of reforestation and detoxification of hazardous wastes in Africa. It has been established that modern biotechnology could offer new opportunities for partnerships between Africa and the developed world. They also hold a bright future in terms of market potential for new products to be developed in Africa. Modern biotechnology has now developed into a global industry that has positively impacted on the lives of Africans. Here, we provide an overview of the place of modern biotechnology, the science, acceptance and support in Africa.