Open Access Short Research Article

Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Some Marine Brown and Red Algal Species Collected from Safaga Seashore, Red Sea, Egypt

Neveen Abdel-Raouf, Hossam M. Hassan, Yara Khayri, Abeer Moawwad, Waleed A. Mohamed, Ibraheem B. M. Ibraheem

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/32729

Aims: Estimation of the biological activities of 3 algal crude extracts for anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.

Methodology: Three marine algae were collected from Safaga seashores, the Red Sea in Egypt, extracted using 70% hydroalcoholic methanol. The antimicrobial activities were carried out using agar disc diffusion method, in addition to the In vivo anti-inflammatory investigation.

Results: The three algal extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against most of the microbial strains. Moreover, the three extracts showed explicit anti-inflammatory effects by determination different inflammation parameters as Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH), Interleukin-6(IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor ( TNF-α).

Conclusion: The Three algae, has a notable antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, that may be due to their unique bioactive secondary metabolites pattern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Further Investigations on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in Sudan Using Molecular Techniques

Mohamed Y. A. Abubaker, Awadalla I. A. Irabi, Siddig Mohamed Elhassan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31333

The natural occurrence of Citrus tristeza clostero virus (CTV) in the main citrus producing regions of Sudan was further substantiated by using a nested RT-PCR approach. Two-thirds of the test samples collected from mandarin, sweet orange, grapefruit, and lime trees reacted positively and a fragment size of 132 bp using an internal and external primer sets were obtained. Cloning and sequencing of these fragments further confirmed the identity of the Sudanese isolates of CTV. The sequence analyses of the first group showed 97% nucleotide identity to a CTV strain from California causing severe stem pitting symptoms (AF01623). The second group was identical to the reference sequence (DSMZ PV-0332 from Israel) and showed 99% identity to CTV strains T30 and             T36 from Florida (AF260651 and U 16304). Whereas the third group showed 94% identity to      CTV strain T318A from Spain that causes severe stem pitting in sweet orange. The three      different sequences obtained from Sudan revealed a lower nucleotide identity among them (about 97%) indicating that at least three different CTV-strains might be present in citrus growing areas     of Sudan.


Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Chemical Properties of Fermented Soybean-supplemented Cassava Flour

G. A. Thomas, C. O. O. Olaiya

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31955

Cassava is the most important tropical root crop; its starchy roots are a major source of dietary energy for more than 700 million people. To combat the poor protein content of cassava and help with the malnutrition faced by the millions of people who consume cassava, the bulk of which are in developing countries, protein supplementation using soybeans is used to offset this deficiency. Even with the increasing amount of research on the nutritional benefits of soybean fermentation, there is a dearth of information on how using fermented soybeans as a protein supplement can help improve nutritional and physiochemical characteristics of soybean-supplemented cassava flour. This study investigated the effect of varying fermentation duration on the nutritive value of fermented soybean-supplemented cassava flour. The cassava flour was fortified with soybean flour in the ratio-90:10, and was grouped according to the duration of fermentation with cassava only and cassava: soybean flour both without fermentation serving as the negative and positive controls respectively. The results obtained showed varying effects on mineral content, with potassium, showing consistent increases with increasing fermentation, whilst zinc and phosphorous has its highest values after 4 days of fermentation, whilst Iron showed significant reduction across the treatment groups. Notable improvements in crude protein, ash content and crude lipid levels were observed with fermentation, with other proximate parameters showing no significant difference when compared to both controls (P=.05). There were significant reductions in the pH and Titratable acidity values of the treatment groups.

From this study, fermentation has been proved to be a useful tool that can be used to improve the nutritional quality and safety profile of protein supplemented cassava flour as raw materials for the development of food products.


Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Patterns and Degradative Potentials of Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Waste Dumpsite Soil in Crude Oil Supplemented Soil Extract and Mineral Salts Media

Olusola A. Oluwole, Jacob O. Oluyege, Adebowale T. Odeyemi, Emmanuel I. Adeyeye

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/28024

Introduction: Pollution caused by crude oil and its products is the most prevalent and widespread problem in soil and water environments and is increasingly being implicated as being responsible for the global warming menace being battled worldwide

Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of Pseudomonas sp. from dumpsite soil to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria, October 2013-May 2015.

Methodology: Soil samples from different locations of Ekiti State Waste Management Board dumpsite in Ilasa, Ado-Ekiti were collected and screened for crude oil utilizing Pseudomonas sp. the isolates were screened using vapour transfer method and the growth kinetics of the selected best degrading species were monitored in mineral salt and soil extract media by measuring optical density. The rate of degradation was evaluated via gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis. The effects of heavy metals on degradation was also evaluated as well as the presence of plasmids in the degrading species.

Results: Eighteen Pseudomonas spp. isolated from municipal waste dumpsite soil were recovered using standard microbiological methods. Five species Pseudomonas OWPSA. OWPS11, OWPS6, OWPS5 and OWPSJ showed enhanced ability to utilize crude oil hydrocarbons at concentrations up to 2.5% v/v with optimal utilization at 2.0%. All the Pseudomonas spp. showed tolerance to zinc and lead but were less tolerant to cobalt and mercury. The Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy analyses of the residual crude oil from the treatments revealed that Pseudomonas sp. OWPSJ exhibited the highest degradation efficiency in soil extract media resulting in loss of 18 peaks. There was marked reduction of hydrocarbon fractions by 75- 90% while the naphthalene fraction of the oil inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. OWPS11 increased. However, Pseudomonas sp. OWPS6 exhibited degradation of hydrocarbons fractions than strain Pseudomonas sp. OWPS11 with loss of 16 peaks. Plasmids were not observed to occur hence suggesting the possibility of the genes being located on the chromosome. Residual components of degradation were esters, methylated benzenes, alcohols and organic acids as well as shorter chain alkanes.

Conclusion: This study establishes the prospect of soil extract media as alternative media for evaluating the degradative ability of bacteria and also the potential of strain Pseudomonas sp. OWPSJ, isolated from a non-petroleum contaminated site as a good bioremediation agent for crude oil spills.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prophylactic and Healing Activities of the Leaves Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa on Gastric Ulcers in Rats

André Perfusion Amang, Christophe Mezui, Gaël Siwe Tchokomeni, Ernestine Nkwengoua Zondengoumba, George Enow-Orock Enonchong, Paul Vernyuy Tan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/32652

Aims: Information provided by practitioners of Cameroonian ethnomedicine suggested that Eremomastax speciosa (E. speciosa) possesses antiulcer activity. This led us to evaluate the prophylactic and healing effects of this plant.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Biology & Physiology (Animal Physiology Laboratory) and Department of Organic Chemistry (Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry), Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, between May 2012 and November 2013.

Materials and Methods: The anti-ulcer activity of the leaf aqueous extract of E. speciosa was tested in rat using several acute gastric ulcer-inducing methods (HCl/ethanol, indomethacin-HCl/ethanol, indomethacin, absolute ethanol and cold/restraint stress). The healing effect on chronic acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers was also tested.

Results: Oral administration of the extract of E. speciosa prevented the formation of acute gastric lesions induced by different necrotizing agents. The inhibition was complete (100% inhibition) at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of extract for the HCl/ethanol and cold/restraint stress methods, respectively. Pre-treatment with indomethacin significantly reduced the ability of the extract to inhibit the formation of HCl/ethanol induced lesions, with inhibition dropping to 39.63% for the dose 200 mg/kg. The lowest degree of gastric protection by the extract (12.13 to 13.80%) was obtained when indomethacin was administered alone by oral route. The protective effect of the extract (200 mg/kg) was reduced significantly when absolute ethanol (27.84% inhibition) was used as the necrotizing agent compared with the HCl/ethanol solution (100%). The prophylactic actions were associated with significant increases in gastric mucus production. The healing rate of chronic acetic acid-induced ulcers was 55.40 and 77.70%, for the dose 200 and 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively.

Conclusion: The prophylactic anti-ulcer effects of the extract are associated with enhanced mucus production which is an important factor in the mechanism of the healing process of chronic gastric ulcers.