Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Ready-to-eat Polyethylene Packed Pawpaw (Carica papaya) for the Presence of Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia species

O. C. Eruteya, A. Nwayanwu

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/32352

Aims: The study examined ready-to-eat cut polyethylene packed pawpaw (Carica papaya) sold in the University of Port Harcourt community for the presence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia species.

Study Design: The samples were randomly purchased from vendors, who openly display them in trays and composite analysed in duplicate.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt between January and June 2015.

Methodology: A total of 50 ready-to-eat polyethylene packed pawpaw were examined for the presence of presumptive E. coli 0157:H7 and non-0157:H7 E. coli, using MacConkey-Sorbitol agar and eosin methylene blue agar. Isolated were confirmed on the basis of cultural morphology, physiology and biochemical characteristics. Screening for antibiotic susceptibility was done using the disk diffusion method involving Mueller Hinton agar.

Results: Of the 50 samples examined, 34 (68%) were positive for Escherichia species, with counts ranging from 1.6 to 3.5 ×104 cfu/g. Presumptive 0157:H7 E. coli accounted for 5.88% while non-0157:H7 E. coli accounted for 94.12%. The resulting isolates showed varying resistance to augumentin (5.88%), amoxicillin (97.06%), cloxacillin (73.53%), cotrimoxazole (95.58%), erythromycin (5.88%), gentamicin (14.71%), nitrofurantoin (85.29%) and tetracycline (58.82%).

Conclusion: The study clearly reveals that consumption of ready-to-eat cut pawpaw from vendors can be a potential risk for food borne outbreaks because of their contamination level by E. coli and the variable resistance patterns in response to different antibiotics used in the study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Determination of Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Urinary Tract Infection

M. Ali, S. U. Diso, A. U. Zage, A. A. Muhammad, M. Garba

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/31125

Aim: The aim of this study is to characterize and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from urine samples of urinary tract infection patients.

Place and Duration of Study: A total of 20 urine samples were collected from Murtala Muhammad specialist hospital Kano Nigeria, from September to November 2015.

Methodology: Using Gram staining, biochemical characterization and bacteriological method, 16 isolates were confirmed as S. aureus from the 20 different urine samples.

Results: All the 16 isolates were able to ferment Mannitol, showed Golden yellow coloration on Nutrient agar and produce β-haemolysis on blood agar. They also found to be positive for both Catalase and Coagulase test. On sensitivity, the isolates were found to be resistant to Augmentin, Ofloxacin and Amoxicillin. On the other hand, the isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin, Erythromycin and Neomycin.

Conclusion: This study showed that S. aureus is one of the most frequent aetiologic agents of urinary tract infection.


Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Oil Derived from Filamentous Cyanobacterium Trichormus sp. as Feedstock to Yield Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters by Enzymatic Synthesis

Patrícia C. M. Da Rós, Caroline S. Pamplona Silva, Maria Estela Silva-Stenico, Marli F. Fiore, Heizir F. de Castro

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33045

The aim of this study was to optimize the cultivation conditions of Trichormus sp. CENA77 and to evaluate the lipid feedstock to generate ethyl esters via enzymatic route using NovozymÒ 435 as catalyst. Under optimized cultivation conditions (1.5 g L-1 Na2CO3 and 150 µmol photon m−2s−1 light intensity), biomass productivity of 286.5 ± 3.6 mg.L−−1, lipid contents of 14.5 ± 2.8% and lipid productivity of 41.5 ± 0.4 mg.L−1day−1 were achieved. Enzymatic transesterification was performed in a microwave reactor using a 1:12 molar ratio (oil/ethanol) at 50°C assessing iso-octane as solvent for 12 h. The viscosity values for the microbial oil (51.9 mm2.s-1) sharply decreased to 10.7 mm2s-1, upon the progress of transesterification reaction. The maximum fatty acid ethyl esters        yield (80%) achieved was due to the presence of non-lipid compounds, which may have affected the biocatalyst activity. Evidence of the Novozym® 435 deactivation was demonstrated by                     the assistance of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of the Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Growth and Development of Solanum nigrum L. (Angiosperm; Solanaceae)

C. N. Okereke, C. D. Nnama, K. U. Ekwealor, C. G. Ukpaka, C. O. Nwogiji

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/30047

Aims: The application of organic and inorganic fertilizers to the soil is considered a good agricultural practice as it helps to improve the fertility of the soil and the quality of plant products. However, the effect of some fertilizers on crop yield is not always positive when compared with others. This study assessed, comparatively, the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and development of Solanum nigrum L. (Angiosperm; Solanaceae).

Study Design:  This was an observational field study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Biology experimental plot, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki from July, 2015 to September, 2015.

Materials and Methods: The field study was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a 3.5 m x 2.5 plot, selected, cleared with ridges made for each treatment and control groups. The blocks were treated with 10 g/m2 each of N.P.K. 15:15:15, cow dung and fowl excreta after which Solanum nigrum L. seedlings were transplanted from the nursery at 20 plants per ridge and spacing of 0.2 m between plants. Growth parameters such as stem diameter, plant height and girth were monitored and readings taken for a period of 8 weeks starting from the 30th day after planting. Data collected were tested statistically (ANOVA) using SPSS version 20.0 at p<0.05.

Results: The results revealed that there was a significant difference in the growth of Solanum nigrum L. in plants height (F-ratio = 4.735; p = 0.00855), stem diameter (F-ratio = 23.46; p = < 0.00001) and plant girth (F-ratio = 5.675; p = 0.003627) with respect to the different fertilizers applied. N.P.K. 15: 15: 15 treated group showed a greater increase in the growth parameters. However, the control group performed better than the groups treated with cow dung and fowl excreta.

Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the overall effects of the different fertilizers applied on the growth and development of Solanum nigrum L. (F-ratio = 18.30836; p = 0.000673) and application of N.P.K. 15:15:15 in the cultivation of Solanum nigrum L. improved the growth of the plant better than cow dung and fowl excreta. However, further studies are hereby recommended to determine the soil profile analysis of the study plot as well as the physico-chemical analysis of the organic fertilizers used with respect to plant yield under erosion-controlled planting condition.


Open Access Original Research Article

Gastroprotective, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of the Aqueous Root Bark Extract of Cassia arereh Del. (Caesalpiniaceae) in a Wistar Rat Model

Mezui Christophe, Nkenfou Céline, Amang André Perfusion, Ndji Otto Gustave, Nkwengoua Ernestine, Djougné Patricia, Lémoupa Blaise, Fouman Jean Mermoze, Tan Paul Vernyuy

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/32667

Aims: The objective of this study is to evaluate gastric cytoprotective, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of aqueous root bark extract of Cassia arereh (AECA).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Sciences (Animal Physiology Laboratory, Biochemistry Laboratory), Higher Teachers’ Training College and Department of Organic Chemistry (Laboratory of medicinal chemistry), Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I. Between August 2015 and December 2016.

Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of AECA was carried out. Experimental Wistar rats were used to evaluate the antiulcerogenic effects by four methods: HCl/ethanol; indometacin - HCl/ethanol; indomethacin and pylorus-ligated. The gastric ulcerations, mucus production, pH, volume and acidity of the gastric juice were measured. Some parameters of oxidative stress (SOD and MDA) were measured in stomach samples obtained from the animals in the indomethacin model. The inhibition parameters of the bacterial growth to the extract were determined by the micro-dilution assay.   

Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that the AECA contained bioactive substances such as triterpenes, sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, saponins, tannins and lipids. AECA (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) dose-dependently prevented ulcer formation by HCl/ethanol (11.13%, 23.51% and 55.26% of inhibition), indomethacin/HCl-ethanol (14.78% and 41.20% for 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectively), indomethacin (10.39%, 40.26 and 87.01%) and pylorus ligature (2.25%, 28.60% and 40.99%). The inhibitory effect of the extract against HCl/ethanol induced ulcer was decreased by the pre-treatment with indomethacin (30 mg/kg, i.p.). ECO reduced Shay-ligated gastric acid secretion from 81.80±02.39 mEq/l in the controls to 56.00±06.49, 53.70±04.76 and 42.75±07.49 mEq/l for the extract doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. AECA is bactericidal on all strains tested with MIC = 250 μg / ml and MBC / MIC ratio = 2. The prophylactic action of AECA was associated with significant increases in gastric mucus production. The levels of SOD were improved and the levels of MDA were decreased in rats treated with the extract.

Conclusion: The antiulcer activity of AECA was attributed to its ability to reduce acid secretion, to enhance mucosal defense, to improve in vivo antioxidant status and for its antibacterial properties.