Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Some Cultural Conditions on Keratinase Production by Bacillus licheniformis Strain NBRC 14206

Francis Sopuruchukwu Ire, Amarachi Chisom Onyenama

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/32726

Effects of Some Cultural Conditions on Keratinase Production by Bacillus licheniformis Strain

NBRC 14206

Aims: Microbial keratinase is an extracellular enzyme capable of degrading keratin present in feathers, hair, and wool. They are widely used in chemical, medical industries as well as in animal feed industry and basic biological science. This study investigated the isolation and effects of some cultural conditions on keratinase production by Bacillus licheniformis strain NBRC 14206 using raw feather.

Study Design: One-factor-at-a-time strategy was adopted to evaluate the effects of some fermentation conditions on keratinase production.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between September 2015 and June 2016.

Methodology: A total of twenty (20) bacterial isolates were isolated from three (3) feather dumping sites. Out of the 20 isolates screened, only one isolate with the highest zone of inhibition was selected. The isolate was morphologically and biochemically characterized based on Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology flowchart as well as molecular analysis. In order to improve keratinase production by the selected isolate, culture medium and the effect of environmental parameters were individually screened and optimized using one-factor-at-a-time methodology. The following cultural parameters: pH, temperature, nitrogen sources, local carbon sources, carbon sources, substrate concentration and incubation time were evaluated for the production of keratinase by the bacterium.

Results: The highest keratinase producing bacteria, isolate KDB1 was found to belong to the genus Bacillus. The highest enzyme production was obtained at 72 h after incubation. The optimum pH and temperature for the production of keratinase by the bacterium were pH 9.0 and 40°C, respectively. The best carbon, local carbon and nitrogen sources were lactose, corn stalk and yeast extract at concentration of 1%, respectively. The highest activity was observed at 1% feather concentration.

Conclusion: Result obtained from this study showed that keratinase produced from isolate KDB1 could be useful in decomposition of keratin-waste (feather) and could find application in leather, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries as well.

Open Access Original Research Article

Double Impact Model for Deciphering Substrate Uptake by Bacteria under Controlled Nutrient Release Conditions

T. Sampson, C. J. Ogugbue, E. Ekaka-a, G. C. Okpokwasili

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33091

Double Impact Model for Deciphering Substrate Uptake by Bacteria under Controlled Nutrient Release Conditions

Aim: Bacterial growth kinetics under slow nutrient delivery conditions were studied and evaluated on a model basis in order to determine the impact of substrates on bacterial growth dynamics.

Study Design: The study was carried out in a controlled laboratory condition using an agar base slow-release fertilizer formulation, composed of NPK and Urea (in capsular and granular forms).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, for a 35 – day period.

Methodology: A 0.25% concentration of crude oil was used as a hydrocarbon substrate. Three bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Micrococcus sp.) were employed in this study. The crude oil degradation rate was monitored using oil and grease method while nitrate nitrogen utilization rate was analyzed by the distillation method.

Results: Bacterial growth rate was observed to be limited by the substrate concentration [S] and the substrate saturation constant/affinity (Ks). The substrate saturation constant/affinity (Ks) was evaluated to be 0.25S, while a bacterial growth ratio ( ) was determined to be 0.8.

Conclusion: These findings as well as the developed models could serve as important tools for monitoring the progress of a bioremediation process/strategy. They are therefore recommended for application in the field of environmental biotechnology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trans-resveratrol Extraction in Four Brazilian Arachis hypogea L. Cultivars with Microwave-Assisted Extraction: Optimization with Response Surface Methodology and Comparison with Conventional Maceration

Gabriel Casimiro, Felipe Sutili, Rodrigo Octavio de Souza, Renata Garcia, Georgia Pacheco, Elisabeth Mansur, Ivana Leal

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/33430

Trans-resveratrol Extraction in Four Brazilian Arachis hypogea L. Cultivars with Microwave-Assisted Extraction: Optimization with Response Surface Methodology and Comparison with Conventional Maceration

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous in the world, producing highly energetic seeds, rich in lipids, proteins, vitamins and carbohydrates. Several bioactive constituents and pharmacological activities have already been observed in extracts of roots, leaves and seeds, including resveratrol. In this work, we report a study of two extraction methodologies, conventional maceration and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) for the extraction of trans-resveratrol. Parameters that affect the efficiency of microwave-assisted extraction of trans-resveratrol from aerial parts of A. hypogaea were optimized adopting the response surface methodology mathematical experimental designs. The contents of different organs of four Brazilian important cultivars (IAC 886, IAC Caiapó, Tatu ST IAC, and IAC 8112) were evaluated by HPLC. Microwave-assisted extraction, with the use of 37 mL of solvent per gram of dry tissue, 1200 g agitation for 15 minutes at 37°C, proved to be more efficient than conventional maceration extraction. Root extracts from IAC Tatu prepared with this methodology showed the highest trans-resveratrol content (1.371 ± 0.07 mg/g extract) among the cultivars tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vitamin Contents and Nutritive Contribution of Flours of Palmyra New Shoots Enriched with Moringa oleifera Leaves and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Powders

Mahan Makado Romuald, Deigna-Mockey Viviane, Konan N’guessan Ysidor, Coulibaly Adama, Sidibe Daouda, Assi Yapo Olivier, Biego Godi Henri Marius

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/32848

Vitamin Contents and Nutritive Contribution of Flours of Palmyra New Shoots Enriched with Moringa oleifera Leaves and Cowpea

(Vigna unguiculata) Powders

The aim of this study is to contribute to a better valorization of Borassus aethiopum by the content determination in vitamin of new shoots of Palmyra-based enriched flour, also to evaluate the nutritive contributions from the consumption.

Fifteen composite flours gotten from flours of B. aethiopum, M. oleifera leaves and V. unguiculata beans powders previously treated, Borassus aethiopum new shoots flour, and two commercial control flours (ET1 and ET2) were analysed. HPLC techniques were used for the separation and quantification of β-carotene and vitamin E and the water-soluble vitamins (vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B9). Vitamin C contained in analyzed samples was determined by titration. Also, estimated daily intake has been evaluated for 1- to 2-year-old.

The water-soluble vitamins analysis gave for 100 grams of dry matter the following contents: vitamin C (23.58 - 60.03 mg), vitamin B1 (0.21 - 1.00 mg), vitamin B2 (0.29 - 1.09 mg), vitamin B6 (0.0 - 1.00 mg) and vitamin B9 (0.22 - 0.41 mg). The studied flours provided the fat-soluble vitamins contents following: β-carotene (111.67 - 960 ER/100 g) and vitamin E (0.00 - 15.95 mg/100 g). The average daily amount of flour consumed by a 1- to 2-year-old in Africa is 250 g. The contributions estimated in vitamins a 250-gram flours EF07 or EE09 were similar to those provided with the references flours used in this study.

The popularization of these composite food formulations could help to ensure the food security of populations, preserve biodiversity and promote the fight against poverty and the advancement of the desert.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing, Proteinase and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activities of Ethanol Extract of Root and Stem of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre

Olorunnisola Olubukola Sinbad, Fadahunsi Olumide Samuel, Adetutu Adewale, Olasunkanmi Adedoyin

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JABB/2017/34121

Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing, Proteinase and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activities of Ethanol Extract of Root and Stem of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre

Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory potential of ethanol extract of the stem and root of Sphenocentrum jollyanum.

Study Design: Red blood cell Membrane stabilization, anti-lipoxygenase and proteinase inhibitory activities of the extracts were assayed in-vitro as a measure of anti-inflammatory potential of ethanol extract of root and stem of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre.

Place and Duration of Study: All the work was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between April 2015-February, 2016.

Methodology: Four hundred grams of the stem and root was extracted in batches with 90% ethanol in a soxhlet apparatus and concentrated using a rotatory evaporator. Inhibitory effect of the extracts on erythrocytes membrane stabilization, trypsin and lipoxygenase (in vitro) were used to assess anti-inflammatory properties according to standard procedures. The reactions were performed in triplicates and changes in optical density of test samples and control were measured using a 96-well micro plate reader Spectra Max 384 plus (Molecular Devices, USA) and inhibitions were calculated.

Results: The result of this study revealed that the extraction yield of the  stem and root was 32.00 g and 26.00 g respectively, while  the stem extract exhibited a significantly (p<0.05) higher dose dependent erythrocyte membrane stabilization when compared with the root extract with IC50  of 325±13.81 μg/ml and 541±6.33 μg/ml respectively. The Proteinase inhibitory assay showed that the stem extract demonstrated a stronger inhibitory activity to the root with IC50 1000±3.35 μg/ml and 1080±2.67 μg/ml. Lipoxygenase inhibition activity assay revealed that the stem and the root extract of Sphenocentrum jollyanum inhibited 50% of lipoxygenase at concentration of 426±6.33 μg/ml and 541±6.67 μg/ml respectively. Hence, the results of this study showed that S.J have some bioactive compounds which are effective in management of inflammatory disorders and thus validates the folkloric use of the plant.